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A SPEAKER

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A SPEAKER S GUIDEBOOK 4TH EDITION CHAPTER 1 Why Study Public Speaking? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A SPEAKER


1
A SPEAKERS GUIDEBOOK4TH EDITIONCHAPTER 1
  • Why Study Public Speaking?

2
Study Public Speaking to
  • A. Advance your professional goals
  • B. Accomplish personal goals
  • C. Enhance your career as a student
  • D. Explore and share values
  • E. Improve critical thinking
  • listening skills

So, this course really is all about you! If you
have an i-clicker, which one of these reasons do
you consider to be most valuable?
3
In the classroom
  • Oral presentations are common classroom
    assignments across the disciplines.
  • Organization skills are applicable to most other
    courses.

4
In the workplace
  • A. Excellent written communication skills
  • B. Effective verbal communication skills
  • C. Constructive interpersonal skills
  • D. Cohesive teamwork skills
  • E. Efficient organization and leadership skills

Which one of these communication skills do you
believe employers value most?
5
In the community
  • Being an Engaged Citizen
  • Public issues require citizens to make decisions
    or take actions.
  • Change occurs when people speak up and work
    together to solve societal problems.
  • Community Service? Discuss your past experiences.

Students from the Asian Student Association clean
up trash from the local beach.
6
In the community
  • Participating in the Process
  • Use your i-clicker to respond, and then discuss.
  • A. I voted in last election!
  • B. I did not, because I was not eligible to vote.
  • C. I forgot to vote.
  • D. I didnt want to vote.
  • E. I dont think my vote matters.

7
In your personal life
  • Small group communication will teach you how to
    communicate more effectively within your family
    or with your co-workers.
  • Learning to listen well improves your friendships
    and romantic relationships.
  • Being articulate about your thoughts and ideas
    leads to increased satisfaction in your
    relationships.

8
Comparing public speaking to other types of
communication contexts
  • SIMILARITIES
  • You must speak to other people.
  • You must think about your listeners and their
    needs.
  • You must be understood when you speak.
  • You must be responsible about what you say and
    how you speak.

9
Comparing public speaking to other types of
communication contexts
  • DIFFERENCES
  • You have less opportunity for a response or
    feedback from your listeners.
  • You are responsible for more of the message
    content.
  • You must pay closer attention to nonverbal cues
    and use a formal voice.

10
Successful public speakers
  • Use familiar words and phrases.
  • Use simple sentence structure (S-V-O).
  • Repeat key concepts.
  • Use inclusive language.
  • Use proper grammar.
  • Are more organized with their thoughts.

11
Cultural Sensitivity
  • Speakers recognize the values, behaviors, and
    artifacts that are important to the cultural
    group to which they are speaking.
  • A culturally sensitive speaker avoids making
    ethnocentric remarks and addresses cultural
    differences with respect.

12
A SPEAKERS GUIDEBOOK4TH EDITIONCHAPTER 1
  • The Communication Process

13
Do you agree or disagree?
  • Anyone who forms a judgment on any point but
    cannot explain himself clearly might as well have
    never thought on the subject.
  • Pericles, Greek Philosopher

14
Some types of communication
  • Dyadic Communication
  • - Intrapersonal
  • - Interpersonal
  • Public
  • - Speeches
  • - Forums
  • Mass
  • Small Group

What type of communication is this child
experiencing? May she also be experiencing other
types of communication that are not pictured?
15
The Communication Process
  • Communication occurs in a single CONTEXT or
    SITUATION.
  • The SPEAKER encodes and then transmits a MESSAGE
    along a CHANNEL to the RECEIVER.
  • The RECEIVER decodes the MESSAGE and sends
    NONVERBAL FEEDBACK to the SPEAKER.
  • Sometimes NOISE or INTERFERENCE keeps the MESSAGE
    from reaching the RECEIVER.

16
Obvious Elements of the Communication Process
  • Situation/Context
  • Speaker/Source
  • Message
  • Channel
  • Receiver/Listener/Audience
  • Noise/Interference
  • Verbal Feedback/Nonverbal Feedback

17
Internal Elements of the Communication Process
for the Speaker
  • Encoding speaker thinks of what to say.
  • Audience perspective speaker considers
    receivers point of view.
  • Shared meaning mutual understanding of the
    message between speaker and receiver.
  • Goal speakers purpose.

18
Internal Elements of the Communication Process
for the Receiver
  • Decoding listener interprets what the speaker
    said or did.
  • Shared meaning mutual understanding of the
    message between speaker and receiver.
  • Outcome effect of message on the receiver.

19
Linear vs. Transactional Communication
  • Linear communication is a one-way message where
    the receiver does not typically respond to the
    source.
  • Example Listening to the news reporter.
  • Transactional communication includes verbal
    feedback or interruptions.
  • Example A conversation between friends.

20
Question
  • Which one of the following types of
    communication is linear?
  • A. Dyadic
  • B. Mass
  • C. Group

21
Question
  • Which one of the following types of
    communication is usually transactional?
  • A. Dyadic
  • B. Mass
  • C. Group
  • D. Public

22
A SPEAKERS GUIDEBOOK4TH EDITIONCHAPTER 1
  • The Canons of Rhetoric

23
History of Rhetoric (The early Greeks)
  • Oratorical skill was required by all.
  • Speeches were persuasive in nature.
  • Self representation existed in court (no
    lawyers).
  • Public affairs occurred in the agora or
    marketplace.

24
History of Rhetoric (The Romans)
  • Citizens, as members of a representative
    democracy, met in a public space, called a forum.
  • The term, public forum, is still used today and
    refers to both town hall meetings to media
    outlets.

25
Types of Oratory (The Greeks)
  • Forensic Oratory legal contexts, such as before
    a jury
  • Deliberative Oratory legislative or political
    contexts
  • Epideictic Oratory for special ceremonies, such
    as celebrations and funerals

26
Great Rhetoricians
  • Protagoras
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Cicero

27
Canons of Rhetoric (Aristotle)
  • Invention
  • Arrangement
  • Style
  • Memory
  • Delivery

28
Invention (inventio Cicero)
  • Adapting the speech information to the audience
    to make your case (persuasive)
  • Discovering your speech material (informative)

INVENTION BREAK Compile a list of
informative and persuasive topics in groups or
as a class on which you would like to hear
speeches.
29
Arrangement (dispositio Cicero)
  • Organizing the speech topic
  • Outlining the topic points or claims
  • Designing your visual aid
  • (Disclaimer The Greeks and Romans did not
    employ visual aids, such as this PowerPoint
    slideshow, but relied mostly on oratorical skill).

30
Style (elocutio Cicero)
  • Meaning a speakers use of language to express
    ideas.
  • Analogy Two singers can sing the same words, but
    that doesnt mean youll like each singers style.

31
Memory (memoria Cicero)
  • The practice of the speech until it can be
    artfully delivered.
  • Remembering all of the lines of argument to prove
    your case.
  • Manuscripts used in Extemporaneous speaking are
    flexible.
  • Forensic speaking requires memorization of
    manuscripts.

32
Delivery (pronounciatio Cicero)
  • Includes elements of vocal variety and delivery
    style
  • Involves nonverbal behavior and gestures used
    when speaking

33
Question
  • Knowing that youll soon be giving a speech,
    about which one of the canons are you most
    concerned or nervous?
  • A. Invention
  • B. Arrangement
  • C. Style
  • D. Memory
  • E. Delivery

34
Review the Canons in the Text
  • Invention occurs when you analyze your audience
    (Ch. 6), select your topic (Ch. 7), and find and
    use supporting material (Chs. 8-10).
  • Arrangement happens when you organize your
    thoughts (Chs. 11, 12, 26), and outline your
    speech (Ch. 13).
  • Style refers to your use of language (Ch. 16).
  • Memory involves the method of delivery (Ch. 17).
  • Delivery refers to your vocal and nonverbal usage
    (Chs. 18 19).

35
Chapter 1 Key Terms for Review
  • oratory
  • rhetoric
  • agora
  • forum
  • public forum
  • forensic oratory
  • deliberative oratory
  • epideictic oratory
  • canons of rhetoric
  • invention
  • arrangement
  • style
  • memory
  • delivery
  • dyadic communication
  • small group communication
  • mass communication
  • public speaking
  • source
  • encoding
  • receiver
  • decoding
  • feedback
  • audience perspective
  • message
  • channel
  • noise
  • shared meaning
  • rhetorical situation
  • culture
  • ethnocentrism
  • cultural intelligence
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