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Working with Scientific Literature

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Title: Working with Scientific Literature


1
Working with Scientific Literature
2
Overview
  • What is scientific literature
  • How to find it
  • How to read it
  • How to use it
  • Source reliability

3
Scientific Literature?
  • Scientific Journals (Primary source)
  • Books (Secondary source)
  • Online Journals and books
  • Science Magazines
  • Newspapers
  • Websites

4
(No Transcript)
5
Scientific research is based on questions
  • As a scientist you will read scientific
    literature and question the ideas, hypotheses and
    experiments of other scientists to gain
  • more knowledge.
  • If.thenstatements

6
Task 1
  • What is your current knowledge of monkeys?
  • What else would you like to know about monkeys?

7
Task 2
  • Observe some interesting capuchin monkey
    behaviour at Edinburgh Zoo.

http//vimeo.com/48287363
8
  • Did any of you have previous knowledge of this
    behaviour ?
  • (i.e. Did you write this down in Task 1?)

9
Workbook Questions
  • 1.Describe the behaviour of the monkeys in the
    clip.
  • 2.Why do you think the monkeys are behaving in
    this way? Do all monkeys do this?
  • 3. Before today did you know monkeys behaved in
    this way?
  • 4.This behaviour is happening because.........Init
    ial idea?
  • 5.How could you prove your idea? This is the hard
    bit! Experiments?
  • 6.How would you find out if other scientists had
    the same or different ideas to you?
  • 7.Where would you go to find this information?
  • 8.How would you start to search? Key words?
  • 9.What key words would be relevant to describe
    what you just saw?

10
Task 3 Key Words
  • Find out more!
  • What key words would you use to describe the
    monkeys behaviour?

monkey
behaviour
rubbing
plant
11
Key Word Search
Millions of hits!
Skim through the first few hits. Decide if they
may be of use to you.
12
New Key Words
13
Understand Your Key Words
Friendly companionship or relations. Could also
pertain to group/community living.
Social
Self - Anointing
To smear with any liquid
14
Find Save the Literature
  • This can take some time and patience. Dont give
    updig deep!
  • Free or paid articles
  • Free abstracts
  • Save papers and abstracts
  • Note URLs and date accessed!

Find 3 papers about your topic.
15
Task 4 Find 3 papers
  • 1. Identify the type of source (journal, book,
    etc).
  • 2. Take note of the name of the source and
    authors and date published (URL address and date
    accessed if online).
  • 3. Read the abstract. The abstract will have a
    brief summary of the paper and thus is very
    useful as it gives you information quickly.
  • 4. Take note of key words if found

16
How to read it - The Basics
Name of the journal, volume and year published
Title of the paper
Author(s) of the paper
Corresponding author
Author(s) Institutes
17
Sections of a Scientific Paper
  • This is not like reading a book
  • Abstract Summary
  • Introduction Background and why you did the
    study.
  • Methods Very specifically how you conducted the
    study.
  • Results Just the facts and figures on what you
    found out.
  • Discussion Explain your results, what does it
    mean? What have you proved or disproved?

18
Read the Abstract
  • Abstracts state the
  • Why purpose
  • How method
  • Results findings
  • Conclusions what it all means

Highlight the why, how, results and conclusions
in the Valderrama et al, 2000 abstract.
19
Read the Introduction
  • Look out for sentences like
  • We hypothesise that/the objective/aim was
  • We report/suggest/propose
  • In contrast to/agreement with previous work by

Highlight both the first and last few sentences
of each paragraph.
20
Skim the Methods
Study Subjects
  • An explanation of the experiments that were done.
    These can be difficult to read and are often
    quite technical. But it all comes down to what
    was measured.
  • If the method is of interest to your study read
    them carefully so you can use their methods in
    your experiments.

Study Site
Fundo Pecuario Masaguaral, cattle ranch and
private reserve in the Llanos of central Venezuela
21
Understand the Results
  • Look at pictures, figures and tables.
  • What has been measured?
  • Are there identifiable trends?

22
Read the Discussion
  • The discussion can be the most important part of
    the paper.
  • It puts everything into context, connecting the
    background information, your results and explains
    to the readers why this research added to the
    field of study.
  • This section allows you to have creative ideas on
    the interpretation of your results as well
    explain why you did or didnt get the results you
    expected.

23
References
  • The reference section helps with your literature
    search. Use it to find more articles. (Note the
    Valderrama paper is included in the Lynch review)
  • Referencing papers and websites in your own
    research project is a NECESSARY skill to learn.
  • There are various ways to reference, the Harvard
    system is a widely accepted one

http//libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm

24
How To Reference
  • In Text
  • Citing a research paper with 2 authors
  • Previous studies have shown benzoquinones to be
    potent insect repellents (Peschke and Eisner,
    1987).
  • Reference list
  • Peschke, K., and Eisner, T. 1987. Defensive
    secretion of the tenebrionid beetle, Blaps
    mucronata Physical and chemical determinants of
    effectiveness. Journal of Comparative Physiology.
    161, 377388.

(Author 1 and
Author 2
comma
Year of publication)
.
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full
Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part
number), Page number(s).
25
How to use Sci Lit
  • Background Information
  • Find out what research has already been done on
    your topic of interest.
  • Methodology
  • Replicate someone elses study by using their
    methods.
  • Discussions
  • Come up with your own results then use the
    research papers to back up your thoughts.

E.g. In our study on capuchin anointing behaviour
we foundwhich was a similar result to a previous
study done by Valderrama et al in 2000.
26
Peer Review Reliabilty?
  • The process by which papers and books are
    evaluated by other scientists working in the same
    area.
  • It aims to improve the quality of publications by
    highlighting errors, bias and weakness in the
    material.
  • These issues must be resolved by the scientist
    prior to acceptance for publication. As a result
    the
  • publication is more reliable.

27
Research or Review???
  • You may come across two main types of papers
  • Research papers publish original experiments and
    data carried out by a particular group of
    scientists.
  • Reviews summarise already published research
    findings from many groups of scientists. Reviews
    give an overview of all research in a particular
    field which can be very useful.

Review
28
Is this accurate/reliable science communication?

SCREEN SHOT ONLY
http//vimeo.com/48287364
29
Popular media Do news papers accurately
reflect real science?
  • This article was written by a science journalist
    for the New York Times http//www.nytimes.com/2000
    /12/05/science/for-monkeys-a-millipede-a-day-keeps
    -mosquitoes-away.html
  • It relates to the Valderamma et al. 2000 paper
    you have read.
  • Do you think it is scientifically accurate? Well
    written? Reliable?

30
Web articles Reliability?
  • This article is relevant to the paper written by
    Weldon et al. 2003
  • http//mentalfloss.com/article/52378/monkeys-use-m
    osquito-repellent-too
  • This article is relevant to the Valderamma et al.
    2000 paper
  • http//cei.org/news-letters-cei-planet/monkeys-an
    d-millipedes

31
Misrepresentation?
  • In an attempt to gain readers, headlines can
    often misrepresent the real story. The following
    headlines come from three websites
  • Animals get stoned on bugs
  • Animals that love to get high
  • Monkeys get high in Florida

32
Same video different headline
  • Medicinal millipedes
  • http//www.animalplanet.com/tv-shows/other/videos/
    fooled-by-nature-medicinal-millipedes.htm
  • Animals on Drugs
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?v-LwQ0ZiTYkQ

33
Acknowledgements
  • Resource designed by Alaina Macri- RZSS
    Edinburgh Zoo and Deirdre McCarthy - ASAB
    (Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour)
  • Wellcome Trust
  • Dr Mark Bowler and Dr Emily Messer
  • University of St Andrews
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