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The Annotated Bibliography

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The Annotated Bibliography What is a Bibliography? What is an Annotation? An Annotation is a commentary a reader makes after critically reading an information source. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Annotated Bibliography


1
The Annotated Bibliography
  • Quickchat with colleague
  • What do you already know about writing a research
    paper?
  • What do you already know about bibliographies/work
    s cited?

2
What is a Bibliography?
  • A works cited list that gives credit to sources
    used to justify your arguments.
  • Also, a way to prevent the horrors of plagiarism.

3
What is an Annotation?
  • An Annotation is a commentary a reader makes
    after critically reading an informative source.
    It can include a summary of the reading, the
    readers response to the reading, and/or
    questions/comments addressing the articles
    clarity, purpose, or effectiveness.

4
What is an Annotated Bibliography?
  • An Annotated Bibliography is a list of
    bibliographic citations that includes a
    descriptive and evaluative paragraph of each
    citation.
  • Its overall purpose is to support your study of a
    particular subject by providing a collection of
    succinct article summaries that will negate the
    need for rereading of an article.
  • It is the researching process for collegiate
    writing. Often, papers will require one.

5
College Classes/Majors that Require Annotated
Bibliographies
  • All of them

6
Where do I start?
  • Determine your subject/topic
  • Our assignment requires you to select and
    consider a particular novel/play that has been
    cited on the AP Literature open-ended prompt list
  • Consider an aspect of the book that youre
    interested in
  • Develop a good research question to which your
    thesis statement would serve as the answer

7
Looking for scholarly articles
  • Consider the different directions and dimensions
    of your research topic. Find relevant articles
    that provide information that could lead you to
    developing a thesis statement.
  • Begin by critically reading the article. View the
    reading as an interactive process in which your
    interpretation of authors words is influenced by
    your own knowledge and experiences.
  • Critical readers attempt to dialogue with the
    text by asking tough questions on the articles
    purpose, audience, language and content.

8
Questions to ask about an article
  • Who is the author? Her/his credentials?, biases?
  • Where is the article published? What type of
    journal is it? What is the audience?
  • What do I know about the topic? Am I open to new
    ideas?
  • Why was the article written? What is its purpose?
  • What is the authors thesis? The major supporting
    points or assertions?

9
Questions to ask about an article
  • Did the author support his/her thesis/assertions?
  • Did the article achieve its purpose?
  • Were the supporting sources credible?
  • Did the article change my viewpoint on the topic?
  • Was the article convincing? What new information
    or ideas do I accept or reject?
  • What evidence was provided in support of the
    thesis?

10
Sample Articleshttp//knarf.english.upenn.edu/Ar
ticles/
11
Writing the Annotation
  • A strong annotation contains
  • A summary of the article and connections with
    your intended topic of study (thesis statement)
  • Your response to the article
  • Inclusion of relevant and significant quotations
  • Questions connecting the article and your
    knowledge and experience.

12
The Summary Section/Paragraph
  • Begin by succinctly stating the articles thesis
    and major points.
  • Describe/define key points and how they are
    connected or substantiated.
  • Describe the usefulness and the limitations of
    the article
  • Limit in length to 3-4 grammatically correct
    sentences

13
The Response and Connections Section/Paragraph
  • Describe the relevance, accuracy, and quality of
    the citation and its conclusions.
  • Document your response to the authors ideas,
    argument, writing style or any other notable
    aspect of the article.
  • Consider how the article supports, refutes, or
    questions your thesis statement.

14
Quotation
  • Directly cite or paraphrase interesting or
    meaningful quotations from the article you wish
    to remember.
  • These would be quotations that could be
    particularly helpful in an essay.
  • The usefulness of the quotation should be evident
    from its content.
  • Be sure to note the page number of the quotation
    or paraphrase for later referencing.

15
Useful Directions to Pursue
  • The purpose of the work
  • A summary of its content
  • For what type of audience the work is written
  • Its relevance to your topic
  • Any special or unique features about the material
  • The strengths, weaknesses or biases in the
    material

16
Creating the Annotated Bib
  • Start with the citation written in MLA style
  • Pay attention to the details of a bib citation
  • Capitalization
  • Punctuation
  • Use of italics

17
The Annotation
  • Summarize each articles central thesis and
    respond critically to the major points supporting
    the thesis.
  • Quotations generally 2-3 quotes/article.
    Include page numbers (or paragraphs) with the
    quotation.
  • Your analysis should select the relevant
    arguments presented in the article to your thesis
    statement.

18
Use the Annotation/suggestions
  • Attach a copy of your annotation to the article
    you are annotating. Add comments as you reflect
    on its content. Start an alphabetical file of
    your annotated articles.
  • Use notes to track and save the information you
    find in your articles
  • This would be the last step before planning your
    paper (which we wont write for this project)

19
Sample Annotation from Literature
  • Lackey, Michael. "Moral Conditions for Genocide
    in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness1." Gale
    Student Resources in Context. Detroit Gale,
    2007. Student Resources in Context. Web. 6 Jan.
    2015. This source discusses, as the title infers,
    the moral conditions for genocide in Heart of
    Darkness. Lackey suggests that there is a
    conceptual gap (para. 5) in Kurtzs
    seventeen-page report to the Society for the
    Suppression of Savage Customs. Lackey references
    an idea from Peter Edgerly Firchows book on
    heart of darkness that suggests that there exist
    two Kurtzes (para. 7). One, expressed in the
    beginning of the report, represents the initial
    state European imperialism, while the other, seen
    in the postscript, represents the moral
    degeneration of imperialism, similar to that
    apparent in Kurtzs madness. This contradiction,
    Lackey argues, criticizes the deteriorating and
    unstable condition of European colonies in Africa
    compared to the ideal. Ultimately, Lackey argues,
    it is this instability in the character of Kurtz
    that serves to represent the true hypocrisy of
    European colonization.

20
Sample Annotation from Literature
  • Lackey, Michael. "Moral Conditions for Genocide
    in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness1." Gale
    Student Resources in Context. Detroit Gale,
    2007. Student Resources in Context. Web. 6 Jan.
    2015. This source discusses, as the title infers,
    the moral conditions for genocide in Heart of
    Darkness. Lackey suggests that there is a
    conceptual gap (para. 5) in Kurtzs
    seventeen-page report to the Society for the
    Suppression of Savage Customs. Lackey references
    an idea from Peter Edgerly Firchows book on
    heart of darkness that suggests that there exist
    two Kurtzes (para. 7). One, expressed in the
    beginning of the report, represents the initial
    state European imperialism, while the other, seen
    in the postscript, represents the moral
    degeneration of imperialism, similar to that
    apparent in Kurtzs madness. This contradiction,
    Lackey argues, criticizes the deteriorating and
    unstable condition of European colonies in Africa
    compared to the ideal. Ultimately, Lackey argues,
    it is this instability in the character of Kurtz
    that serves to represent the true hypocrisy of
    European colonization.

CITATION SUMMARY ANALYSIS/CONNECTION
21
The Thesis Statement
  • A thesis statement is NOT a statement of accepted
    fact it is the position that needs the proof you
    will provide in your annotations. Think of it as
    a claimit indicates what you claim to be
    interesting or valuable about your subject. It is
    an interpretation of your subject, rather than
    the subject itself.
  • Just as important as what youre arguing is the
    question How are you arguing? In other words,
    how are all the pieces of information that you
    have gathered related? Choose the most effective
    approach.
  • You cant just pluck a thesis out of thin air.
    Return to your research to make sure that your
    argument has legs on which to stand.
  • Consider starting by searching for the work as
    well as a literary critical theory. ie Marxism
    in Brave New World Feminist Theory and Conrads
    Heart of Darkness Historical Science and
    Frankenstein

22
The Thesis Statement
  • This assignment is not designed for a poetry or
    prose analysis
  • (youll have few of those in college)
  • So, dont include literary devices in your thesis
    statement.
  • Focus on the overall meaning and how different
    elements of the novel/play reinforce a theme,
    critique, or problem posed by the text

23
The Thesis Statement
  • Avoid vague qualifiers such as interesting,
    important, and unusual. Instead, seek sharp,
    meaningful words that increase clarity.
  • Do not use me, my, mine, I, you, thesis, paper,
    or essay in your thesis statement (or
    annotations!). Let your important conclusion
    about your research speak for itself!
  • A strong thesis not only grabs the interest of
    your reader, who now wants to see you support
    your unique interpretation, it also provides a
    focus or road map for your argument.
  • You may revise your thesis statement as you write
    your bibliography. The important thing is for
    your thesis to identify the purpose of your
    research and for each annotation to relate back
    to your thesis.

24
Thesis Statement Checklist SOIDS! (I tried)
  • Specific Addresses particular aspects of the
    text. Makes a clear claim. Not general or vague.
  • Organized Should have clear organizational
    structure that addresses parts of the text
  • Inferential Addresses some greater meaning or
    argument about a non-obvious or non-literal
    meaning of the whole text uses inference
  • Debatable Should be able to disagree with your
    claim
  • So what? Addresses a meaningful meaning and
    sets up the thesis to have an actual impact on
    how we read and interpret the text

25
Some Interesting Angles to Take
  • Posing a problem for interpretation
  • The lack of independence and depth to The Great
    Gatsbys female characters signals a significant
    issue to the text, namely that
  • Disagreeing with another scholars opinion
  • Although critic Robert Stallworth has argued
    against biographical criticism in Fitzgeralds
    work, the parallels between the novelists life
    and work suggests
  • Viewing the work through a certain critical lens
  • When considered from a Marxist approach, The
    Great Gatsby exposes underlying arguments about
  • Outlining a debate and taking a side
  • Scholars seem to disagree on the extent of racism
    present in The Great Gatsby, but consideration of
    XYZ leads readers to believe that the work fails
    to advocate for

26
Sample Thesis Statements from Previous Years
  • Victor Hugos Les Misérables provides a realistic
    depiction of social and economic life in the
    lower classes and the injustices they endured
    because of the corrupt French monarchy. By
    favoring the poverty-ridden French citizens with
    protagonists and sympathetic characters instead
    of the antagonist French aristocracy, Hugo belies
    the hypocritical and oppressive Napoleonic
    government.
  • That The Great Gatsby critiques the possibility
    of the American ideal is undeniable however, the
    root of this is found in the flaws of the
    characters class structures, as opposed to in
    Fitzgeralds treatment of race, as many recent
    critics assert.
  • Although F. Scott Fitzgerald portrays the
    idealistic Gatsby as an allegory to the sacrifice
    and esteem of The Passion of Christ, and the
    American Dream is a phenomenon of insatiable
    desire, the actual role that Jay Gatsby assumes
    is one as a false prophet of this enticing
    Utopia.

27
Super Thesis!
  • Although A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
    establishes antihero Stephen Dedalus as his own
    independent character, similarities between the
    life and beliefs of Joyce and his protagonist,
    supplemented by Joyces use of free indirect
    speech and the meandering construction of his
    Bildungsroman, hold Dedalus and his author to be
    metaphysically conjoined, divorced by fictional
    disjoint yet perennially married in spirit.
    Interpretation of Dedalus character, therefore,
    cannot be properly accomplished without an
    appreciation for the political, social, and
    religious environment in which Joyce cultivated
    his own beliefs.

28
What does this have to do with us?
  • You will be preparing an annotated bibliography
    to fulfill your research requirement for English
    IV.
  • You must use 5 sources from literary critical
    articles found in academic sources.
  • DO NOT use articles that simply summarize. They
    must have an argument about how to interpret the
    text.
  • These articles will form the evidence for your
    own thesis about one of the major works we have
    encountered so far.

29
Steps to Writing a Researched Literary Analysis
and Annotated Bibliography
  • 1. Read, consider, and discuss primary text.
  • 2. Inventory your own ideas about the text. Begin
    thinking about what you have to argue about it.
  • 3. Perform a cursory review of what scholars have
    to say about the text. Consider your various
    critical theories to develop an argument.
  • 4. Formulate a research question about the text.
    Let this guide you to your thesis. Do more
    research to answer the research question (RQ)
  • 5. Formulate a thesis statement that is specific,
    debatable, and provable. This thesis statement
    should be the answer to your RQ.
  • 6. Find sources that are relevant to your thesis
    statement. They should in some way address your
    topic.
  • 7. Critically skim the article and find sections
    that may be useful in either supporting or
    refuting your thesis.
  • 8. Catalogue and inventory scholars opinions in
    paraphrased notes or direct quotations.
  • 9. Write the citation in proper format.
  • 10.Justify how the source addresses your thesis
    statement. Be specific as to how it supports,
    refutes, or questions your thesis.

30
Lets run through an example of how to complete
this process effectively.
  • Weve already read and carefully considered Heart
    of Darkness.
  • Weve already skimmed some critical articles and
    were interested in a historicist connection with
    imperialism.
  • Weve already drafted a strong thesis statement
    that goes something like this
  • Conrads Heart of Darkness prevents not a racist
    configuration of the African continent, but
    rather a xenophobic fear of the Other that
    stands in conflict with European economic and
    political interests.

31
Hmm This looks like a good source. Lets first
skim the article carefully.
32
An Example The Source Pick out important
details to support thesis statement.
  • Conrad shows the impasse that English liberal
    nationalism has reached as it confronts the
    results of imperialism and social Darwinism.
    Marlow's perplexity suggests that English
    liberalism cannot offer an adequate account of
    the role of cultural differences in shaping
    political beliefs. Marlow senses the threat posed
    to his Victorian English liberal values, his
    ethos, by both the Company's vulgar materialism
    and Kurtz's unworldly idealism. He rejects the
    Doctor's biological theory of national character,
    but he cannot hold out for long against Kurtz's
    appeals to "moral ideas" (p. 33),laden as they
    are with claims on Marlow's English sympathies.
    In the Congo Marlow faces a "choice of
    nightmares," and he chooses Kurtz, although he
    cannot say why.

33
  • The difficulty is that even the best-willed
    imperialists seem condemned to apply their own
    ethnocentric standards to the societies they
    encounter, and Conrad seems to find little reason
    to trust that even the most noble sounding of
    these standards-"humanity, decency and
    justice-can really be applied impartially
    except, perhaps, within the context of a
    nation-state as fortunate as Conrad seems to
    believe England has been in the history of its
    constitutional arrangements and the development
    of its civil society. Even among this happy breed
    of men it may be that the ideals of neutral
    justice, rule of law, and universal standards of
    right conduct are little more than the totems of
    a particularly successful cult whose time is
    running out. At any rate, Conrad would like to
    believe that he, a stateless Pole, has
    successfully become an Englishman, but in Heart
    of Darkness he expresses a profound skepticism
    about whether Africans or even Belgians and
    Frenchmen-can do the same. For this reason, if
    for no other, Conrad's "national idea" has no
    future.
  • These seem like good passages that add to my
    thesis. I can either quote them directly or
    paraphrase. Both require a parenthetical
    citation, though.

34
  • Lewis, Pericles. "His Sympathies Were in the
    Right Place" Heart of Darkness and the Discourse
    of National Character. Nineteenth-Century
    Literature, Vol. 53, No. 2. (Sep., 1998), pp.
    211-244. This scholarly article found in the
    journal Nineteenth Century Literature offers
    critical insight into the psychological and
    political beliefs of the novels narrator,
    Marlow. Lewis argues that although Marlow is
    English, his attitudes seem to reflect the
    historically-based collective identity of Europe
    during imperial periods. While Marlow does
    consider human rights to exist, he does so only
    within the context of a nation-state as fortunate
    as England (para. 6). In presenting the
    problem of mans inhumanity to man, Lewiss
    article provides an important argument about the
    justification for imperialism. While race
    certainly complicates the power imbalance in
    Conrads novel, the spread of empire,
    nationalism, and the idea of manifest destiny in
    Africa serve as the rationale for the cruelty
    Marlow witnesses. This xenophobia, Lewis asserts
    with aid from plentiful historical sources,
    controls more of the narrative than racist
    beliefs.
  • CITATION SUMMARY INTEGRATED QUOTE CONNECTION/
    EVALUATION

35
Annotated Bibliography Powerpoint Bibliography
  • Engle, M., Blumenthal, A., Cosgrave, T. (2002,
    November 20). How to prepare an annotated
    bibliography. Retrieved February 7, 2003, from
    Cornell University Library, Reference Department
    Web site http//www.library.cornell.edu/okuref/re
    search/skill28.htm
  • Meleis, A. L. (1991). Theoretical nursing (2nd
    ed.). Philadelphia Lippincott.
  • Wilhoit, S. (2001). A brief guide to writing from
    readings. Needham Heights. MA Allyn Bacon.
  • Williams, O. Writing an annotated bibliography.
    Retrieved February 7, 2003 from University of
    Minnesota, Crookston Library Web site
    http//www.crk.umn.edu/library/links/annotate.htm

36
Another Example from Economics
  • Breeding evil. (2005, August 6). Economist,
    376(8438), 9. Retrieved from http//www.economist.
    com.
  • This editorial from the Economist describes the
    controversy surrounding video games and the
    effect they have on people who use them. The
    article points out that most critics of gaming
    are people over 40 and it is an issue of age not
    of the games themselves. While the author briefly
    mentions studies done around the issue of
    violence and gaming, he does not go into enough
    depth for the reader to truly know the range of
    studies that have actually been done in this
    area, other than to take his word that the
    research is unsatisfactory. The author of this
    article stresses the age factor over violence as
    the real reason for opposition to video games and
    stresses the good gaming has done in most areas
    of human life. This article is a useful resource
    for those wanting to begin to explore the
    controversy surrounding video games, however for
    anyone doing serious research, one should
    actually examine some of the research studies
    that have been done in this area rather than
    simply take the author's word that opposition to
    video games is simply due to an issue of
    generational divide.

37
Sample Annotation
  • Said, Edward W. The World, the Text, and the
    Critic. The World, The Text and the Critic.
    Cambridge Harvard UP, 1983. 31-53. Said argues
    that texts are enmeshed in circumstance, time,
    place, and society (35) and that language, or a
    text, has a specific situation.(35) This
    conclusion means that texts do not have limitless
    interpretations (39). One other interesting point
    Said makes is that discourse is not a democratic
    exchange as some describe it. Rather, texts are
    fundamentally facts of power, not of democratic
    exchange discourse is usually like the unequal
    relation between colonizer and colonized,
    oppressor and oppressed (45,48). Words are a
    part of the world and so are associated with
    power, authority and force. As an example, Said
    uses the exchange between Stephen Dedalus and the
    dean of students. Their worldliness means texts
    are representative of the reigning institutions
    critics jobs should be to expose things that
    otherwise lie hidden beneath piety, heedlessness,
    or routine (53).
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