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Pedagogies of Engagement

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Title: Pedagogies of Engagement


1
Pedagogies of Engagement Cooperative Learning
and Problem-Based Learning
Karl A. Smith Engineering Education Purdue
University Civil Engineering - University of
Minnesota ksmith_at_umn.edu http//www.ce.umn.edu/sm
ith University of Minnesota Early Career
Teaching Program March 24, 2010
2
Session Objectives
  • Participants will be able to
  • Describe Key Features of Pedagogies of
    engagement, especially cooperative learning
  • Explain rationale for Active and Cooperative
    Learning
  • Describe key features of Cooperative Learning
  • Summarize research on How People Learn
  • Describe key features of the Backward Design
    process Content (outcomes) Assessment -
    Pedagogy
  • Identify connections between cooperative learning
    and desired outcomes of courses and programs
  • Participants will begin applying key elements to
    the design on a course, class session or learning
    module

3
Background Knowledge Survey
  • Familiarity with
  • Pedagogies of Engagement
  • Active and Cooperative Learning Strategies
  • Informal turn-to-your-neighbor
  • Formal cooperative problem-based learning
  • Approaches to Course Design
  • Wiggins McTighe Understanding by Design
    (Backward Design)
  • Fink Creating Significant Learning Experiences
  • Felder Brent Effective Course Design
  • Research
  • Student engagement NSSE
  • Cooperative learning
  • How People Learn
  • Responsibility
  • Individual course
  • Program
  • Accreditation
  • Other

4
Throughout the whole enterprise, the core issue,
in my view, is the mode of teaching and learning
that is practiced. Learning about things does
not enable students to acquire the abilities and
understanding they will need for the twenty-first
century. We need new pedagogies of engagement
that will turn out the kinds of resourceful,
engaged workers and citizens that America now
requires. Russ Edgerton (reflecting on higher
education projects funded by the Pew Memorial
Trust)
5
Student Engagement Research Evidence
  • Perhaps the strongest conclusion that can be made
    is the least surprising. Simply put, the greater
    the students involvement or engagement in
    academic work or in the academic experience of
    college, the greater his or her level of
    knowledge acquisition and general cognitive
    development (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005).
  • Active and collaborative instruction coupled with
    various means to encourage student engagement
    invariably lead to better student learning
    outcomes irrespective of academic discipline (Kuh
    et al., 2005, 2007).

See Smith, et.al, 2005 and Fairweather, 2008,
Linking Evidence and Promising Practices in
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
(STEM) Undergraduate Education -
http//www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/Fairweather
_CommissionedPaper.pdf
6
MIT Harvard Engaged Pedagogy
January 2, 2009Science, Vol. 323
www.sciencemag.org
January 13, 2009New York Times http//www.nytimes
.com/2009/01/13/us/13physics.html?em
Calls for evidence-based teaching practices
7
http//web.mit.edu/edtech/casestudies/teal.htmlvi
deo
8
http//www.ncsu.edu/PER/scaleup.html
9
Lila M. Smith
10
Pedago-pathologies Amnesia Fantasia Inertia Lee
Shulman MSU Med School PBL Approach (late
60s early 70s), President Emeritus of the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
College Teaching Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking
learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.
11
What do we do about these pathologies?
  • Activity Engage learners in meaningful and
    purposeful activities
  • Reflection Provide opportunities
  • Collaboration Design interaction
  • Passion Connect with things learners care about

Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning
seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.
12
Lila M. Smith
13
Pedagogies of Engagement
14
The American College Teacher National Norms for
2007-2008
Methods Used in All or Most All 2005 All 2008 Assistant - 2008
Cooperative Learning 48 59 66
Group Projects 33 36 61
Grading on a curve 19 17 14
Term/research papers 35 44 47
http//www.heri.ucla.edu/index.php
15
Reflection and Dialogue
  • Individually reflect on Active and Cooperative
    Learning Successes. Write for about 1 minute
  • Context? Subject, Year, School
  • Structure/Procedure? What did you do/experience?
  • Outcome? Evidence of Success
  • Discuss with your neighbor for about 3 minutes
  • Select Success Story, Comment, Question, etc.
    that you would like to present to the whole group
    if you are randomly selected

16
Active Learning Cooperation in the College
Classroom
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Cooperative Base Groups

See Cooperative Learning Handout (CL
College-804.doc)
17
Shaping the Future New Expectations for
Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics,
Engineering and Technology National Science
Foundation, 1996
Goal All students have access to supportive,
excellent undergraduate education in science,
mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all
students learn these subjects by direct
experience with the methods and processes of
inquiry. Recommend that SMET faculty Believe
and affirm that every student can learn, and
model good practices that increase learning
starting with the students experience, but have
high expectations within a supportive climate
and build inquiry, a sense of wonder and the
excitement of discovery, plus communication and
teamwork, critical thinking, and life-long
learning skills into learning experiences.
18
  • National Research Council Reports
  • How People Learn Brain, Mind, Experience, and
    School (1999).
  • How People Learn Bridging Research and Practice
    (2000).
  • Knowing What Students Know The Science and
    Design of Educational Assessment (2001).
  • The Knowledge Economy and Postsecondary Education
    (2002). Chapter 6 Creating High-Quality
    Learning Environments Guidelines from Research
    on How People Learn

19
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20
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21
Designing Learning Environments Based on HPL (How
People Learn)
22
Resources
  • Smith, K. A., Douglas, T. C., Cox, M. 2009.
    Supportive teaching and learning strategies in
    STEM education. In R. Baldwin, (Ed.). Improving
    the climate for undergraduate teaching in STEM
    fields. New Directions for Teaching and Learning,
    117, 19-32. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Pellegrino Rethinking and Redesigning
    Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
  • Bransford, Vye and Bateman Creating High
    Quality Learning Environments

23
Backward Design Wiggins McTighe
  • Stage 1. Identify Desired Results
  • Stage 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence
  • Stage 3. Plan Learning Experiences
  • and Instruction

Wiggins, Grant and McTighe, Jay. 1998.
Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA ASCD
24
It could well be that faculty members of the
twenty-first century college or university will
find it necessary to set aside their roles as
teachers and instead become designers of learning
experiences, processes, and environments.
James Duderstadt, 1999 Nuclear Engineering
Professor Dean, Provost and President of the
University of Michigan
25
Active Learning Cooperation in the College
Classroom
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Cooperative Base Groups

See Cooperative Learning Handout (CL
College-804.doc)
26
Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves
people working in teams to accomplish a common
goal, under conditions that involve both positive
interdependence (all members must cooperate to
complete the task) and individual and group
accountability (each member is accountable for
the complete final outcome). Key
Concepts Positive Interdependence Individual
and Group Accountability Face-to-Face Promotive
Interaction Teamwork Skills Group Processing
27
http//www.ce.umn.edu/smith/docs/Smith-CL20Hando
ut2008.pdf
28
Book Ends on a Class Session
29
  • Book Ends on a Class Session
  • Advance Organizer
  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create (Turn-to-your-neighb
    or) -- repeated every 10-12 minutes
  • Session Summary (Minute Paper)
  • What was the most useful or meaningful thing you
    learned during this session?
  • What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as
    we end this session?
  • What was the muddiest point in this session?

30
Advance Organizer The most important single
factor influencing learning is what the learner
already knows. Ascertain this and teach him
accordingly. David Ausubel - Educational
psychology A cognitive approach, 1968.
31
Quick Thinks
  • Reorder the steps
  • Paraphrase the idea
  • Correct the error
  • Support a statement
  • Select the response
  • Johnston, S. Cooper,J. 1997. Quick thinks
    Active- thinking in lecture classes and televised
    instruction. Cooperative learning and college
    teaching, 8(1), 2-7.

32
  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Group
  • Introductory Pair Discussion of a
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  • Formulate your response to the question
    individually
  • Share your answer with a partner
  • Listen carefully to your partner's answer
  • Work together to Create a new answer through
    discussion

33
Minute Paper
  • What was the most useful or meaningful thing you
    learned during this session?
  • What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as
    we end this session?
  • What was the muddiest point in this session?
  • Give an example or application
  • Explain in your own words . . .
  • Angelo, T.A. Cross, K.P. 1993. Classroom
    assessment techniques A handbook for college
    teachers. San Francisco Jossey Bass.

34
  • Session Summary
  • (Minute Paper)
  • Reflect on the session
  • 1. Most interesting, valuable, useful thing you
    learned.
  • 2. Things that helped you learn.
  • 3. Question, comments, suggestions.
  • Pace Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast
  • Relevance Little 1 . . . 5 Lots
  • Instructional Format Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah

35
MOT 8221 Spring 2010 Session 1 (1/29/10)
Q4 Pace Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast (3.0) Q5
Relevance Little 1 . . . 5 Lots (3.9) Q6
Format Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah (4.1)
36
MOT 8221 Spring 2009 Session 1
Q4 Pace Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast (3.3) Q5
Relevance Little 1 . . . 5 Lots (4.2) Q6
Format Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah (4.4)
37
Informal CL (Book Ends on a Class Session) with
Concept Tests Physics Peer Instruction Eric
Mazur - Harvard http//galileo.harvard.edu Pee
r Instruction www.prenhall.com Richard Hake
http//www.physics.indiana.edu/hake/ Chemistry
Chemistry ConcepTests - UW Madison
www.chem.wisc.edu/concept Video Making
Lectures Interactive with ConcepTests ModularChem
Consortium http//mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/ STEM
TEC Video How Change Happens Breaking the
Teach as You Were Taught Cycle Films for the
Humanities Sciences www.films.com Harvard Thi
nking Together From Questions to Concepts
Interactive Teaching in Physics Derek Bok
Center www.fas.harvard.edu/bok_cen/
38
The Hake Plot of FCI
35.00
SDI
30.00
ALS
WP
25.00
20.00
PI(HU)
15.00
ASU(nc)
WP
10.00
ASU(c)
HU
5.00
0.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
Pretest (Percent)
39
Richard Hake (Interactive engagement vs
traditional methods) http//www.physics.indiana.ed
u/hake/
Traditional (lecture)
Interactive (active/cooperative)
ltggt Concept Inventory Gain/Total
40
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41
Physics (Mechanics) Concepts The Force Concept
Inventory (FCI)
  • A 30 item multiple choice test to probe student's
    understanding of basic concepts in mechanics.
  • The choice of topics is based on careful thought
    about what the fundamental issues and concepts
    are in Newtonian dynamics.
  • Uses common speech rather than cueing specific
    physics principles.
  • The distractors (wrong answers) are based on
    students' common inferences.

42
Informal Cooperative Learning Groups Can be
used at any time Can be short term and ad hoc May
be used to break up a long lecture Provides an
opportunity for students to process material
they have been listening to (Cognitive
Rehearsal) Are especially effective in large
lectures Include "book ends" procedure Are not as
effective as Formal Cooperative Learning or
Cooperative Base Groups
43
Strategies for Energizing Large Classes From
Small Groups to Learning Communities Jean
MacGregor, James Cooper, Karl Smith, Pamela
Robinson New Directions for Teaching and
Learning, No. 81, 2000. Jossey- Bass
44
Active Learning Cooperation in the College
Classroom
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Cooperative Base Groups

See Cooperative Learning Handout (CL
College-804.doc)
45
Formal Cooperative Learning
46
Cooperative Learning Research Support Johnson,
D.W., Johnson, R.T., Smith, K.A. 1998.
Cooperative learning returns to college What
evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4),
26-35. Over 300 Experimental Studies First
study conducted in 1924 High Generalizability
Multiple Outcomes
Outcomes 1. Achievement and retention 2.
Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning 3.
Differentiated views of others 4. Accurate
understanding of others' perspectives 5. Liking
for classmates and teacher 6. Liking for subject
areas 7. Teamwork skills
January 2005
March 2007
47
Small-Group Learning Meta-analysis
Springer, L., Stanne, M. E., Donovan, S. 1999.
Effects of small-group learning on
undergraduates in science, mathematics,
engineering, and technology A meta-analysis.
Review of Educational Research, 69(1), 21-52.
Small-group (predominantly cooperative) learning
in postsecondary science, mathematics,
engineering, and technology (SMET). 383 reports
from 1980 or later, 39 of which met the rigorous
inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. The main
effect of small-group learning on achievement,
persistence, and attitudes among undergraduates
in SMET was significant and positive. Mean
effect sizes for achievement, persistence, and
attitudes were 0.51, 0.46, and 0.55,
respectively.
48
  • Formal Cooperative Learning
  • Jigsaw
  • 2. Peer Composition or Editing
  • 3. Reading Comprehension/Interpretation
  • 4. Problem Solving, Project, or Presentation
  • 5. Review/Correct Homework
  • 6. Constructive Academic Controversy
  • 7. Group Tests

49
http//www.aacu.org/advocacy/leap/documents/Re8097
abcombined.pdf
50
  • Teamwork Skills
  • Communication
  • Listening and Persuading
  • Decision Making
  • Conflict Management
  • Leadership
  • Trust and Loyalty

51
Challenged-Based Learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • Case-based learning
  • Project-based learning
  • Learning by design
  • Inquiry learning
  • Anchored instruction

John Bransford, Nancy Vye and Helen Bateman.
Creating High-Quality Learning Environments
Guidelines from Research on How People Learn
52
  • Professor's Role in
  • Formal Cooperative Learning
  • Specifying Objectives
  • Making Decisions
  • Explaining Task, Positive Interdependence, and
    Individual Accountability
  • Monitoring and Intervening to Teach Skills
  • Evaluating Students' Achievement and Group
    Effectiveness

53
Problem Based Cooperative Learning Format TASK
Solve the problem(s) or Complete the
project. INDIVIDUAL Estimate answer. Note
strategy. COOPERATIVE One set of answers from
the group, strive for agreement, make sure
everyone is able to explain the strategies used
to solve each problem. EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR
SUCCESS Everyone must be able to explain the
strategies used to solve each problem. EVALUATION
Best answer within available resources or
constraints. INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY One
member from your group may be randomly chosen to
explain (a) the answer and (b) how to solve each
problem. EXPECTED BEHAVIORS Active
participating, checking, encouraging, and
elaborating by all members. INTERGROUP
COOPERATION Whenever it is helpful, check
procedures, answers, and strategies with another
group.
54
Cooperative Base Groups
  • Are Heterogeneous
  • Are Long Term (at least one quarter or semester)
  • Are Small (3-5 members)
  • Are for support
  • May meet at the beginning of each session or may
    meet between sessions
  • Review for quizzes, tests, etc. together
  • Share resources, references, etc. for individual
    projects
  • Provide a means for covering for absentees
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