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Introduction to Cognitive Science

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Introduction to Cognitive Science COGN 1001 Schedule 11:40 12:30 Tuesday: K. K. Leung Building, LG 102 Thursday: K. K. Leung Building, LG 109 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Cognitive Science


1
Introduction to Cognitive Science
  • COGN 1001
  • Schedule
  • 1140 1230
  • Tuesday K. K. Leung Building, LG 102
  • Thursday K. K. Leung Building, LG 109
  • Syllabus - http//www.hku.hk/philodep/courses/icog
    sc0001/
  • BBoard -
    http//www.hku.hk/cgi-bin/philodep/bbs/start.cgi

2
Lecturers
  • Psychology - Dr A. Francis
  • Computer Science - Dr. Q. Huo
  • Linguistics - Dr. A. Bodomo
  • Neuroscience - Dr. I. Bruce
  • Philosophy - Dr. J. Lau
  • Cognitive Science Centre Director

3
Tutorials
  • Tutors
  • Lo Lap Yan
  • Savio Wong Wai Ho
  • Grading
  • 40 Coursework
  • 25 Five Assignments
  • 10 Tutorial Participation and Attendance
  • 05 Attendance
  • 60 Final Exam

CogSci Graduates
4
So, whats the course about, already!?!
  • What do Cognitive Scientists study?
  • Why?
  • How?

5
What?
  • Information in the brain

6
Basic Assumptions
  • Information can be processed and stored
    (remembered), retrieved, changed, communicated
    and turned into action.
  • There are rules (logical or otherwise) by which
    information is manipulated or processed.

7
Cognitive Science is a basic science
  • Like chemistry, physics, or biology
  • The activities of the nervous system can be
    analysed at different levels
  • Psychological
  • Computational
  • Neurological
  • All the levels are relevant and are not reducible

8
History
  • It all starts with Philosophy (Decartes,
    Mind/Body problem).
  • Post-behaviorist Psychology (Chomsky, Miller
    Modern Linguistics)
  • Cognitive Neuropsychology (from Broca to fMRI)
  • Computer Science (Turing, von Neuman, neural
    computation)

9
Why?
  • Brains do amazing things

10
A few things brains do
  • Recognize people and things
  • Reach out and pick up things
  • Speak and understand language(s)
  • Read and write
  • Navigate the streets of Hong Kong
  • Lecture on Cognitive Science
  • Etc.

11
Why study these things?
  • To help us better understand human behaviors.
  • To help make our computers better at doing
    human-like tasks.

12
Why not just study brains?
13
The brain is as complex as anything we know
  • 12801380 grams
  • 180 billion neurons
    (80 billion involved in
    information processing)
  • 1 trillion connections (1,000,000,000,000)
    (some cells have up to 15,000 connections!)
  • at least 60 possible neurotransmitter chemicals
  • dozens of different kinds of cells bushy, spiny,
    stellate, basket chopper Purkinje, Golgi
  • nearly 100 functionally distinguishable areas

14
The relationship between anatomy or physiology
and behavior is very complex
15
  • Studying brains (alone) might not tell us what we
    want to know.
  • Like studying architecture or urban planning by
    looking only at bricks!
  • We need to study behavior from many perspectives.

16
How?
  • Thats the rest of the course!

17
The five major areas
Computer Science
Philosophy
COG SCI
Physiology
Linguistics
Psychology
18
Cognitive Psychology
  • Information in the brain
  • What is the physical structure of the nervous
    system, and what is its role in human behavior?
  • Perception
  • Categorization
  • Representation
  • Memory
  • Attention
  • (Language)
  • Learning
  • Thought

19
Perception
20
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21
Computer Science
  • "Knowledge representation"
  • What is AI?
  • Semantic networks and frames
  • Predicate logic
  • Rule-based systems

22
Creatures created by Rodney Brookes at MIT
Partial semantic network for water
23
Linguistics
  • What are the mental processes and representations
    underlying language production and understanding?
  • Language Structure
  • Phonology
  • Morphology
  • Syntax
  • Semantics
  • Pragmatics
  • Literacy

24
University of California Perceptual Sciences
Laboratory (D. Massaro) http//mambo.ucsc.edu/
25
Physiology
  • Horrifying complexity of connections among
    neurons in the brain
  • Relatively simple interactions between neurons
  • excitation inhibition
  • Voyage through the visual system for the image of
    a brown dog
  • Simple retinal processing to parallel processing
    of form, colour, motion to object recognition
  • Limitations of the Neuroscience approach to
    Cognition

26
EEG/ERP recording
MRI (axial)
fMRI (coronal)
27
Philosophy
  • Two roles of Philosophy in Cognitive Science
  • Role 1 baby science nursery
  • "what you do to a problem until it can be solved
    by science work with scientists to find the
    best way to study a problem
  • many sciences developed out of philosophy
  • Role 2 building inspector
  • examines foundational assumptions and concepts
    e.g. What are computations? What is
    consciousness? What makes something a
    representation?

28
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