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Gerunds and Gerund Phrases

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Gerunds and Gerund Phrases 8th Grade English Clauses and Verbals Unit Today s Notes: April 8, 2011 VII. Gerunds A. A participial form of the verb used as a noun. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gerunds and Gerund Phrases


1
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases
  • 8th Grade English
  • Clauses and Verbals Unit

2
Todays Notes April 8, 2011
  • VII. Gerunds
  • A. A participial form of the verb used as a
    noun.
  • B. A gerund phrase includes the gerund and other
    words that complete its meaning.

3
Yesterday
  • We learned about participles and participial
    phrases.
  • What can a participle be used as?
  • How can you identify a
  • Present Participle?
  • Past Participle?

4
Good
  • Today we are going to learn about the next
    verbala verb with an identity crisis
  • We are going to learn about Gerunds!

5
Who has my subject?
  • What is the subject of these sentences?
  • Dancing is the love of Tiffanys life?
  • Playing chess is Steves secret passion!

6
Gerunds
  • In the previous lesson, you learned that a
    present or past participle may be used as an
    adjective.
  • Well, a present participle is really, really
    confusedit can also be used as a noun!
  • In this case, it is called a gerund!

7
Gerunds
  • A gerund is a verb form that ends in ing and is
    used as a noun.
  • The playing field is one hundred yards long.
    (participle/adjective)
  • Playing is our favorite activity (gerund)

8
Gerunds
  • A gerund is a verb form that ends in ing and is
    used as a noun.
  • Like other nouns, a gerund can serve as the
    simple subject of a sentence. It can also be a
    direct object or the object of a preposition.
  • It can be used, albeit infrequently, as a
    predicate noun.

9
Examples
  • Blocking requires strength. (Subject)
  • The athletes enjoy exercising (Direct Object)
  • They maintain endurance
    by running (Object of a
    Preposition)

10
Gerund Phrases
  • A gerund phrase is a group of words that includes
    a gerund and other words that complete its
    meaning.
  • Ex. Kicking the ball takes
    skill.
  • Ex. A team tries scoring a
    touchdown.
  • A touchdown results from moving the ball across
    the goal.

11
Exercise A.
  • Identify the gerund or gerund phrase.

12
Exercise A.
  1. A win requires earning more points than the
    opponent.
  2. Kicking earns points in two different ways in
    this sport.
  3. A team earns three points by kicking a field
    goal.
  4. Teams also try converting for one point after a
    touchdown.
  5. Defending the teams own goal is crucial.

13
Exercise A.
  • 6. A teams defense features tackling.
  • 7. Blocking is another important element of a
    good defense.
  • 8. Passing makes football exciting.
  • 9. Testing your skills is an important part of
    football.
  • 10. Skilled players increase spectators
    enjoyment by adding dramatic action to the game.

14
Gerunds and It
  • Gerunds, like noun clauses, can always be
    replaced by the word it.
  • Participles and Participial phrases NEVER can.
  • Gerunds are ALWAYS singular so IT will always
    work!
  • Ex. Rob enjoys swimming. Rob enjoys it.
  • Ex. Rob is swimming in a meet
    today (doesnt work)

15
But how do we know which is which?
  • You can identify the three functions of ing verb
    forms if you remember that a present participle
    can serve as a verb, an adjective, or as a noun
    (which is called a gerund)!
  • Ask yourselfwhat is the
    participle doing?

16
Examples
  • The Bears are winning the game (main verb)
  • The winning team scores the most points
    (adjective)
  • Winning is everything! (Gerund)

17
Exercise B.
  • Find the verbal. Tell me if it is acting as a
    main verb, an adjective, or a gerund.

18
Exercise B.
  1. The coach or the captain chooses playing
    strategies.
  2. The quarterback does not like guessing the next
    play.
  3. The team members are hoping for a victory.
  4. Scoring in football can occur in four different
    ways.
  5. A team earns six points for crossing the
    opponents goal line.

19
TOUCHDOWN!!!
20
Remember
  • A gerund is a verb form that ends in ing and is
    used as a noun.
  • A gerund phrase is a group of words that
    includes a gerund and other words that complete
    its meaning.
  • You can replace a gerund with the word it and the
    sentence would still make sense.

21
Chapters 14/15 List
  • A sentence is a group of words that has a subject
    and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.
  • A simple sentence has one complete subject and
    one complete predicate.
  • The complete subject names whom or what the
    sentence is about.
  • The complete predicate tells what the subject
    does or has. Sometimes it can also tell what the
    subject is or is like.
  • A compound sentence contains two or more simple
    sentences.
  • Each simple sentence is called an independent, or
    main, clause.
  • A main clause has a subject and a predicate and
    can stand alone as a sentence.
  • A complex sentence has a main clause and one or
    more subordinate clauses.
  • A subordinate clause is a group of words that has
    a subject and a predicate but DOES NOT express a
    complete thought.
  • It is always combined with a main clause.
  • An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that
    modifies or describes a noun or pronoun in the
    main clause of a complex sentence.
  • An adjective clause is very similar to an
    appositive because it adds extra information to
    the sentence.
  • An adjective clause is usually introduced by a
    relative pronoun. Relative pronouns signal a
    subordinate clause, which cannot stand alone.
  • An essential clause is an adjective clause that
    is necessary to make the meaning of the sentence
    clear.
  • Do NOT use commas to set off an essential clause
    from the rest of the sentence.
  • Remove an essential clause and change the meaning
    of the sentence!
  • A nonessential clause is an adjective clause that
    is not necessary to make the meaning of the
    sentence clear.
  • Use commas to set off a nonessential clause from
    the rest of the sentence.
  • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that
    often modifies, or describes, the verb in the
    main clause of a complex sentence.

22
OWWWWI AM BLIND!
Speaking of football...
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