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The Current Situation and Development of Digital Preservation in China

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Title: The Current Situation and Development of Digital Preservation in China


1
The Current Situation and Development of Digital
Preservation in China
  • Jianhai Ruan
  • Visiting Scholar of GSLIS

2
Outline
  • 1. Why Digital Preservation in China?
  • 2. The Status of digital preservation in China
  • 3. Activities of Digital Preservation in China
  • 4. The Comparison of Digital Preservation between
    USA and China
  • 5. The Thinking of Digital Preservation in China

3
Why Digital Preservation?
  • ?China Internet Network Information Center
    (CNNIC) Releases the 23nd Statistical Report on
    the Internet Development in China (January 13,
    2009) .
  • ?According to the newly released Statistical
    Repot by China Internet Network Information
    Center (CNNIC)
  • By the end of December 2008, the amount of
    netizens in China had reached 298 million, it is
    the first place in the world.
  • This report indicates the number of broadband
    users has reached 270 million, which also tops
    the world.
  • The CNNIC also announced that, by the time of
    December 31,2008, the number of CN domain names,
    which was 13.57 million, is the largest country
    code Top-Level Domain names in the world.
  • The size of netizens in China has continued to
    display the trend of rapid development.

4
Growth of Netizens in China
  • Source China Internet Network Information
    Center China Internet Network Information Center
    http//www.cnnic.cn/en/index/

5
Internet Penetration Rate in China
  • Source China Internet Network Information
    Center China Internet Network Information Center
    http//www.cnnic.cn/en/index/

6
Why Digital Preservation?
  • ?The universal impact of digital information
    environment
  • the development of the Internet and new
    information technologies propelled peoples lives
    into the digital epoch.
  • ?People live in two worlds at the present time
    the real world and the virtual world.
  • ?The Internet is a vast virtual world. People
    can do everything what people do in real world on
    Internet.
  • ?digital societies have emerged and digital
    communities have formed of E-government,
    E-learning, E-business and E-service.

7
Why Digital Preservation?
  • ?The universal impact of digital information
    environment
  • Digital Life
  • ?Computer and Internet are common tools of
    peoples working, living, and studying.
  • ?Digital camera, digital camcorder, cell phone,
    scanner, and GPS provide people much pleasure and
    convenient.
  • ?Online communities.
  • ?Online games.

8
Why Digital Preservation?
  • ?Vast quantities of information in digital form
  • Born-digital
  • Text, Images, Audio, Video, Web pages,
    Computer programs, Databases are produced,
    exchanged, and used in a variety of settings.
  • Electronic publishing (includes the digital
    publication of e-books and electronic articles,
    and the development of digital libraries and
    catalogues.)
  • ?Publication in print version and digital
    version.
  • Electronic publishing is increasingly
    popular in works of fiction as well as with
    scientific articles.
  • ?Publication in digital-only version.
  • A number of journals have established
    electronic versions or even moved entirely to
    electronic publication.

9
Why Digital Preservation?
  • ?Vast quantities of information in digital form
  • Large-Scale Digitalization
  • The paper materials are scanned and
    converted into digital form.
  • For instance
  • ? CALIS (China Academic Library Information
    System)
  • ?The dissertation database subproject
  • ?The special subject databases subproject.
  • ?CADAL (China-US Million Book Digital Library
    Project)
  • http//www.cadal.zju.edu.cn/

10
Large-Scale Digitization
  • The goal of the Library's Large-Scale
    Digitization is to convert the Library's print
    collection into digital form in support of the
    library's long-standing commitment to make its
    collections broadly available. 
  • The digitization of information resources is a
    pattern of the preservation of paper literatures.

11
Collections grid
stewardship
high
low
low
uniqueness
high
Cited from Lorcan Dempsey Terms and conditions
... libraries, subject terminologies and the web
2004 http//www.oclc.org/research/presentations/de
mpsey/dewey_20040316.ppt
12
Why Digital Preservation?
  • ?Vast quantities of information in digital form
  • Virtual Reality(VR)
  • ?The use of VR in Heritage and Archaeology has
    enormous potential in museum and visitor centre
    applications.
  • ?Virtual Reality enables heritage sites to be
    recreated extremely accurately, so that the
    recreations can be published in various media.
  • ?Virtual Forbidden City 3D virtual world based
    on the Palace Museum in Beijing.
  • http//www.beyondspaceandtime.org/

13
Virtual Forbidden City
14
Why Digital Preservation?
  • More and more valuable information is in digital
    form.
  • Universal access to information is an essential
    element of a Knowledge Society.
  • Access to and dissemination of information relies
    on the stability of documents and the
    retrievability of their content.

15
Why Digital Preservation?
  • Digital information faces
  • The prospect of vanishing away rapidly due to
    their amorphousness and might be easily lost.
  • Technical developments often result in greater
    instability and shorter lifespans of documents.
  • The consequence of the fragility of digital
    storage media, as well as rapid obsolescence of
    storage and rendering environments.

16
Why Digital Preservation?
  • There is a real danger that much important
    digital information will be lost through lack of
    awareness and poor planning for the future.
  • The preservation of digital materials becomes an
    imperative.

17
So
  • We need to think about digital preservation
    problem
  • of securing the long-term persistence of
    information in digital form.
  • of demonstrating its value
  • and of releasing its value in the digital
    environment.
  • We need to promote awareness of the importance of
    preserving digital information.
  • We need to find better ways of digital
    preservation.

18
The Status of digital preservation in China
19
The Studies of Digital Preservation in China
  • The studies on digital preservation in China
    began in the 1990s, but most of the studies were
    carried out by individuals, even though there
    were no funds available for studies in this area.
  • Since 2000, the Chinese government has begun to
    pay attention to digital preservation. Some
    projects about digital preservation were funded
    by funded by the Natural Science Foundation of
    China (NSFC www.nsfc.gov.cn/) and by National
    Planning Office of Philosophy and Social Science
    (NPOPSS http//www.npopss-cn.gov.cn/).

20
Status of the preservation of digital resources
in China
  • The following data cited from the paper titled
    Status of the preservation of digital resources
    in China results of a survey. Program
    electronic library and information systems, Vol.
    41, No. 1, 2007. PP35 46.
  • These first-hand data shows the main challenges
    in preserving digital resources in libraries,
    archives and information centers in China .

21
Figure 1 Geographic distribution of respondents
22
The complexity of digital collections in China
  • Table 2 provides an overview of the collection
    types within libraries, archives and information
    centers and it can be seen that digital pictures,
    databases and multimedia have been collected in
    all types of organization surveyed.
  • The multimedia collections in archives are less
    common than in libraries and information centers.

23
The complexity of digital collections in China
  • Table 3 shows the type of digital collection
    within an organisation.
  • Many libraries have all three types of collection
    (digital pictures, databases and multimedia).
  • In contrast with libraries, near a half of the
    archives have only two types of collection.
  • Most information centres have all types.

24
The complexity of digital collections in China
  • The complexity of digital collections in China is
    reflected in the variety of the digital
    collections, the storage media and the storage
    formats used.

25
Storage formats
  • The main data storage formats for pictures were
    jpg, tif and pdf
  • For databases, they were SQL-server, Oracle,
    Access and Sybase for databases
  • For multimedia, formats such as MP3, AVI (Audio
    Video Interleave) , WAV (Waveform), RM
    (RealMedia) and RMVB (RealMedia Variable Bitrate)
    were used.
  • A number of other formats were also used
    including special formats for Chinese materials
    (e.g. Fangzheng and Chaoxin) .

26
Selection of data formats
27
Selection of data formats
  • The status of format selection for the same
    resources within an organization and the results
    are shown in Tables 5-7.
  • To select different storage formats for the same
    type of resource within an organization is very
    common.
  • The reasons may be related to the different aims
    of collection resource management, or to their
    non-standardized management within the
    organization.

28
Diversification of storage media
  • Table 8 shows the range of media used for digital
    storage in libraries and archives.
  • The data in libraries and archives have been
    stored on various media, such as optical disc,
    floppy disc, magnetic tape, hard disc and others.
  • Most libraries and archives have preserved a
    great deal of information on optical discs.
  • Most optical discs collected by libraries are
    electronic publications on CD-ROMs provided by
    publishers.
  • The optical discs in archives are CD-Rs (i.e.
    they contain information written on to the discs,
    and archives often write the data of digitized
    collections on to these optical discs). The
    choice of media is made by staff in the archives.

29
Storage conditions for digital information
  • Table 9 Storage conditions of digital collections
    in libraries, archives and information centers
    (n57)
  • The Others indicated in the last column of
    Table 9 includes antimagnetic equipment,
    light-proof equipment, mildew-proof equipment and
    so on.

30
Storage conditions for digital information
  • Table 9 shows overall details regarding media
    storage conditions.
  • The storage conditions of most digital collection
    are good.
  • Majority of media are separately kept in
    surroundings with controlled temperature and
    humidity, fireproof, waterproof and theft-proof
    equipment.

31
Storage conditions of digital media by type of
organization
  • Table 10 compares the storage conditions of
    libraries with those of archives.
  • It indicates that some libraries or archives
    still have some collections stored in bad
    conditions.

32
Storage conditions for digital information
  • Table 11 Comparison of media storage conditions
    between libraries and archives.
  • The five measures are separate storage
    air-conditioning fireproofing waterproofing and
  • Most organizations have implemented all five
    measures at the same time, but some have not
    taken any measures
  • Archives have paid more attention to media
    storage conditions than libraries.

33
Deterioration of data
  • The physical deterioration of data has existed
    in (According to the responses from all
    participants).
  • archives 32.1 per cent (n28)
  • libraries 71.4 per cent (n21) and
  • information centers 25 per cent
    (n8).
  • The physical deterioration of digital data would
    appear to be universal in China and might be
    related to the high use factor.
  • The physical deterioration of digital data often
    leads to some non-renewable data loss.
  • The storage condition of the data is only one of
    the factors needed to keep the data physically
    intact, as improper management and maintenance
    can result in the physical deterioration of the
    data.
  • The physical deterioration of digital data can be
    reduced or avoided by appropriate management
    measures.

34
Inability to read the data
  • According to the investigation
  • 14.3 per cent of the 28 archives and 47.6 per
    cent of the 21 libraries had not been able to
    read digital data they had preserved.
  • 10.7 per cent of the archives, 33.3 per cent of
    the libraries and 12.5 per cent of the
    information centers reported having obsolete
    storage media.

35
Weak data back-up management
  • Table 12 indicates that there are a few
    organizations without any back-up measures, and
    only a few adopt online back-up measures.

36
Activities of Digital Preservation in China
37
The projects of Digital Preservation
  • ?Project Management Strategies of Ensuring
    Long-term Access to Digital Information
  • ?Abstract
  • Through surveying research materials,
    making on-the-spot inspections, and combining
    existing research, This project investigated the
    main factors that influence the long-term
    availability of digital information and proposed
    criteria for the selection and appraisal of
    sources. We also proposed policies for ensuring
    long-term access to selected digital information
    sources and suggested administrative steps for
    the maintenance of digital information using the
    document life-cycle approach.
  • ?Principal Investigator
  • Liu Jiazhen, Professor in the School of
    Information Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan,
    China.
  • ?Funding
  • (Fund NO. 701400021) , the Natural Science
    Foundation of China (NSFC www.nsfc.gov.cn/).

38
The projects of Digital Preservation
  • ?Project The Strategy Study on Chinese Culture
    Digital Resource Preservation Warehouse
  • ?Abstract
  • This project is likely to develop
    strategies for the modification or extension of
    existing statutes, to ensure the long-term
    preservation of digital resources. It will also
    result in guidelines for information resource
    management departments to manage digital
    resources in an appropriate manner.
  • ?Principal Investigator
  • Liu Jiazhen, Professor in the School of
    Information Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan,
    China.
  • ?Funding
  • (Fund NO. 70373048), the Natural Science
    Foundation of China (NSFC www.nsfc.gov.cn/).

39
The projects of Digital Preservation
  • ?Project Web Information Collection and
    Preservation (WICP)
  • ?Abstract
  • The National Library of China always
    attaches great importance to preservation and
    protection of all kinds of documents. Web pages
    have become a new dimensional space for social
    culture and a cultural heritage in todays world.
    This project is likely to develop strategies by
    operating an experimental web-archiving project.
    Based on results achieved from this project, NLC
    will be able to formulate policies and strategies
    for long-term preservation of digital
    information.  
  • ?Principal Investigator
  • National Library of China, Beijing, China.
  • ?Funding
  • National Library of China

40
Cooperation and Exchange
41
Sino-US Forum on Digital Preservation
  • Theme Digital Information Long-term
    Maintenance and Preservation.
  • Sponsors National Natural Science Foundation of
    China (NSFC) and US National Science Foundation
    (NSF).
  • Organizers School of Information Management,
    Wuhan University and Institute of Archives
    science and technology.
  • Time May 15-16, 2008
  • Place Beijing, China.

42
Sino-US Forum
  • Subjects
  • 1. Government Information Resource
    Management. 2. Application of OAIS in Digital
    Information Resource Management. 3. Digital
    Library and Digital Archives. 4. Filing and
    Long-term Preservation of Digital Records. 5.
    Application of Metadata in Information Resource
    Management.

43
Chinese-European Workshop on Digital Preservation
  • Sponsoring institutions
  • National Science and Technology Library (NSTL) 
  • National Library of China (NLC) 
  • Chinese Science Digital Library of the Chinese
    Academy of Sciences (CSDL/CAS) 
  • China Academic Library Information System
    (CALIS) 
  • Electronic Information for Libraries (eIFL)
  • Organizing institutions
  • China Academic Library Information System
    (CALIS) 
  • Chinese Science Digital Library of the Chinese
    Academy of Sciences (CSDL/CAS) 
  • Gottingen State and University Library (SUB) 
  • Austrian National Library (ANL) 
  • Electronic Information for Libraries (eIFL)

44
Chinese-European Workshop on Digital Preservation
  • Undertakers
  • Chinese Academic Library Information
    System Chinese Science
  • Digital Library of the Chinese Academy of
    Sciences
  • Time July 14-16, 2004
  • Location Library of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
    Beijing, China.
  • TOPICS OF WORKSHOP
  • Overview of issues about Digital Preservation 
  • Preservation Aspects of Different Digital Object
    Types 
  • Digital Preservation in the Organisational
    Context 
  • A Global Infrastructure for Local Preservation 
  • National and International Preservation
    Strategies and Initiatives / International
    Cooperation

45
The International Conference on the Digital
Preservation (iPRES 2007)
  • Theme Digital Preservation Sustainable
    Programs and Best Practices
  • Organizer the National Science and Technology
    Library of China (http//www.nstl.gov.cn)
  • Undertaker
  • The National Science Library, Chinese Academy
    of Sciences (http//www.las.ac.cn).
  • Time October 11-12, 2007
  • Place The National Science Library, Chinese
    Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

46
The International Conference on the Digital
Preservation (iPRES 2007)
  • ?Subjects
  • I. Management planning, administering, staffing,
    financing, certifying
  • II. Operations system evaluating and selecting,
    workflow managing, and rights managing
  • III. New directions in preservation service
    environments, grid, personal archives, linking
    scientific data and primary publications

47
The International Conference on the Digital
Preservation (iPRES 2009)
  • ?iPRES is the series of annual international
    conferences which bring together researchers and
    practitioners from around the world to explore
    the latest trends, innovations, thinking, and
    practice in digital preservation.
  • ?Following on the successful iPRES 2004 at LCAS,
    Beijing, China, iPRES 2005 at SUB, Goettingen,
    Germany, and iPRES 2006 at Cornell University,
    Ithaca, NY, U.S.A., iPRES 2007 at NSL, Beijing,
    China, iPRES 2008 at the British Library, London,
    Britain, iPRES 2009 will be organized by the
    California Digital Library (CDL) in San
    Francisco, October 5-6, 2009 at
    the Mission Bay Conference Center.

48
The International Conference on the Digital
Preservation (iPRES 2009)
  • ? iPRES2009 will be the sixth in the series of
    annual international conferences that bring
    together researchers and practitioners from
    around the world to explore the latest trends,
    innovations, and practices in preserving our
    scientific and cultural heritage.
  • ?The promise of digital preservation will be
    realized when it is truly integrated into the
    mainstream of digital scholarship, culture and
    commerce. iPRES2009 will continue the discussion
    of creating our digital future.

49
The International Conference on the Digital
Preservation (iPRES 2009)
  •  
  • ? http//www.cdlib.org/iPres/ipres2009.html

50
The Long-term Digital Preservation is attached
importance to in China
  • Cultural organizations in China, such as digital
    relevant department and library, have realized
    the importance of the long-term digital
    preservation of scientific and technical
    information, and began to build the network of
    preserving digital information resources, to
    organize main scientific and technological
    information organizations to discuss and build
    the mechanism of the long-term digital
    preservation, and to develop and test the
    long-term preservation system jointly, supported
    by the Ministry of Science and Technology of
    Peoples Republic of China. (Cited and translated
    from Guangming Daily, 2007-10-25 ).

51
The Long-term Digital Preservation is attached
importance to in China
  • http//www.gmw.cn/01gmrb/2007-10/25/content_688198
    .htm

52
Joint Advanced Seminar for Digital Libraries
  • Teaching Objectives Advanced Professional of
    Digital Libray.
  • Organizers The National Science and Technology
    Library of China (NSTL) and School of Information
    Studies, Syracuse University,USA
  • Undertaker
  • The National Science Library, Chinese Academy
    of Sciences
  • Time One Seminar biennialy
  • Place The National Science Library, Chinese
    Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

53
Joint Advanced Seminar for Digital Libraries
  • This seminar is two years period. It has six
    courses. Three courses every year (estimate 80
    class hours), 10 days.
  • Six courses
  • First Year Introduction to Digital Libraries,
    Planning and Evaluation of Digital Library
    Services, XML in Digital Library
  • Second Year Digital Resources Preservation,
    Human-computer Interaction and Digital Library,
    The Systematic Design and Application of
    Knowledge Organization.
  • Certificate Certificate for Advanced Studies in
    Digital Libraries, School of Information Studies,
    Syracuse University,USA

54
The Comparison of Digital Preservation between
China and USA
55
Planning and Infrastructure
  • ?National level Program in USA
  • The National Digital Information Infrastructure
    and Preservation Program (NDIIPP)
    http//www.digitalpreservation.gov/
  • ?Organization level in China
  • National Science and Technology Library (NSTL) 
  • National Library of China (NLC) 
  • Chinese Science Digital Library of the Chinese
    Academy of Sciences (CSDL/CAS) 
  • China Academic Library Information System
    (CALIS) 

56
Management Policy and Strategy
  • ?Digital Preservation Management in Library in
    USA
  • The IDEALS initiative (the Universitys
    Institutional Repository), the Preservation and
    Conservation Programs digital preservation
    management.
  • http//www.library.uiuc.edu/prescons/services/digi
    tal_preservation.html
  • ?Most libraries in China have not pay attention
    to digital preservation management and practice.

57
Education and Training
  • ?In USA
  • Graduate Course LIS590PDL Digital Preservation
    in GSLIS.
  • Digital Preservation Management Workshop in
    Library of UIUC.
  • ?In China
  • There is no the course of Digital Preservation
    in most graduate school of Library and
    Information Science.

58
Projects and Cooperation
  • ?The projects place extra emphasis on specific
    objectives, and multi-partners in USA.
  • Preserving Creative America Preserving
    Virtual Worlds. Partners include the University
    of Maryland, Stanford University, Rochester
    Institute of Technology and Linden Lab.
  • ?The projects place extra emphasis on management
    strategy, and seldom-partners in China.

59
The Thinking of Digital Preservation in China
60
Issues and Challenge
  • Lacking integrated policy and strategic planning
    for long-term digital preservation.
  • Lacking mandatory, effective measure and means of
    long-term digital preservation.
  • Lacking policy guidance, planning coordination,
    supervise and inspect.
  • Lacking systematic research and perfect scheme of
    technological orientation.
  • Crucially, Lacking fund investment for digital
    preservation.

61
Conclusion
  • The aim of digital preservation is to enable
    long-term storage and effective access to the
    information.
  • We have known the reasons of influencing the
    development of digital preservation in China, so,
    we will try our best to do it well.
  • I believe that China will make considerable
    progress in Digital Preservation.

62
Thank you! Welcome to Chongqing, China!
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