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Imperialism and Nationalism in the Middle East

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Growing western influence Russia & Great ... How could a national home for the Jewish people be established in a territory where the majority of the population ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Imperialism and Nationalism in the Middle East


1
Imperialism and Nationalism in the Middle East
2
Ottoman Empire Turkish Nationalism
  • Multi-cultural make-up of the Ottoman empire. All
    subjected to massacres ordered by the Red
    Sultan in response to protests against his
    tyranny
  • Young Turks led the protests, promised reform and
    peace for all. Joined Germany in World War I
  • Turkish Nationalism

3
Allied Triumph over the Ottoman
  • British declared an official protectorate over
    Egypt
  • 1916 local governor of Mexxa, encouraged by
    British, declared Arabia independent from Ottoman
    rule
  • British troops seized Palestine
  • 0ct 1918 with 300,000 casualties from the war,
    negotiated an armistice with the allied powers

4
Persia Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925)
  • Growing western influence Russia Great
    Britain
  • Discovery of oil reserves in 1908
  • Division of spheres of influence
  • Internal divisions
  • Led to growth of indigenous Persian Nationalist
    Movement
  • By 1906 Shah forced to grant a constitution based
    on a western model

5
Pahlavi Dynasty, 1925Iran, 1935
  • Established by Reza Khan
  • Attempted to establish a Republic
  • Reforms
  • Strengthened central government
  • Modernized the civilian military bureaucracy
  • Modern economic infrastructure
  • Western educational model
  • Forbade veiling in public
  • Name of nation changed to Iran, 1935
  • Occupied by Soviet British troops during WWII

6
Mandate System
  • Iraq was assigned to the British
  • Syria and Lebanon were given to the French.

7
Iraq
  • Established after the collapse of the Ottoman
    Empire
  • Kurdish, Sunni and Shiite population
  • Occupied by British in WWI to protect oil
  • Placed under British mandate in 1920
  • Repressed anti-western resistance by 1921
  • Oil discovered in Kirkuk in 1927
  • Britain supported Syrian rule of King Faisal
    maintained heavy influence

8
Saudi Arabia
  • 1920s, Ibn Saud of the Wahhabi Movement united
    Arab tribes to drive out Ottoman Rule
  • Established the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1932
  • Traditionally poor, Standard Oil struck oil in
    1938 at Dhahran on the Gulf.
  • Arabian-American oil or ARAMCO established

9
Palestine
  • British Mandate following WWI
  • Zionist Movement, Theodor Herzl est. 1897
  • Jewish immigration accepted in Palestine prior to
    and during WWI
  • 85,000 or 10 of the population were Jewish by
    the War
  • Balfour Declaration of 1917 declared Palestine a
    national home for Jews

10
Division of Palestine Creation of Jordan
  • Post WWI Britian created a separate state or
    Emirate of Trans-Jordan out of the eastern
    portion of Palestine
  • WWII, became the independent kingdom of Jordan
  • Arab-Palestine conflict today the Apartheid
    state that exists is a product of these British
    interventions

11
Post War Era Rise of Radicalism
  • British French Refusals to grant autonomy
    fueled nationalist upheavals in Africa middle
    east
  • Imperial governments determined to control middle
    eastern oil fields, strategic Suez Canal the
    Persian Gulf

12
Pan-Africanism
  • African leaders, alienated by European economic,
    political and cultural domination called for
    unity of all Africans
  • Henry Sylvester-Williams called the first
    Pan-African Conference in London 1900
  • Later held in Latin America United States
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