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ACCELERATING SUSTAINABLE POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT

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Title: ACCELERATING SUSTAINABLE POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT


1
ACCELERATING SUSTAINABLE POVERTY REDUCTION
THROUGH COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT
Deputy Minister for Poverty, Labor and
SMEs Ministry of National Development
Planning/National Development Planning Agency
(Bappenas) Jakarta, May 25, 2010
2
Outline
  • I. Poverty reduction in the national development
    framework
  • II. Poverty Situation in Indonesia
  • III. National Program for Community Empowerment
    (PNPM Mandiri)
  • IV. PNPM Monitoring

3
Poverty Reduction in Indonesias National
Development
  • National Development Agenda 2004-2009
  • 1. Realizing a safe Peaceful Indonesia
  • 2. Realizing a Just Democratic Indonesia
  • 3. Enhancing the Prosperity of the People
  • Reducing the number of poor and open unemployment
  • Improving the quality of human resources
  • Improving the quality of environment and natural
    resources management
  • Increasing the infrastructure

MDGs Other International Conventions
LTNDP
MTNDP
Strategic Plan
National Poverty Reduction Strategy
Annual Work Plan Poverty Reduction as the
priority of national development
Sectors program
Regionals Program
Implementation Of Poverty Reduction Programs
National Budget
Regional Budget
4
MEDIUM TERM DEVELOPMENT GOAL
3 AGENDA IN 2004-2009
2005 2006
2007 2008
2009 Economic growth 5.7 5.5
6.3 6.1
4.5 Unemployment 11.24
10.28 9.11 8.39
7.87 Poverty rate 15.97
17.75 15.42 15.42
14.15
5 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA IN THE RPJM 2009-2014
Economic Development and Peoples Welfare
Governance Reform
Democracy
Law Supremacy and combating Corruption
Inclusive Growth and Justice
PROJECTION 2010 PROJECTION 2014
Economic growth 5.5 -5.6
7.0-7.7 Unemploymen
t 7.6
5-6 Poverty rate
12.0-13.5
8-10
Source Medium Term Development Goal (RPJM)
2004-2009 and 2010-2014
5
TRIPLE-TRACK DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
  • Pro-Growth Strategy to increase and accelerate
    economic growth through promoting investment,
    exports, and businesses including the improvement
    of investment climate.
  • Pro-Job Strategy to create employment
    opportunities including the the establishment of
    a flexible labor market and creating a conducive
    industrial relations.
  • Pro-Poor Strategy to reduce poverty and to
    revitalize agriculture sector, forestry,
    maritime, rural economy. In the medium and
    long-term period the poverty alleviation strategy
    is also aimed at increasing the capacity and
    quality of the community level contributed to
    local development, and to provide access for the
    poor in basic services including education,
    health, sanitation/clean water, as well as rural
    infrastructure.

6
Framework fro Welfare Improvement
Labor-related Programs
Employment Creation
  • Fiscal-Monetary
  • Policies
  • Infrastructure
  • Acceleration
  • Package
  • Investment
  • Climate Package
  • Energy policy
  • SMEs Package
  • Etc.

Economic Growth and Stability
Peoples Welfare
Poverty Reduction
  • PNPM
  • Small-scale
  • infrastructure
  • Economic productivity
  • Environment
  • improvement
  • Human resources
  • improvement

Price Stabilization (rice, education, health,
basic infrastructure)
Basic Needs Improvement Programs
Social Protection System
Harmonization Community Empowerment Programs
  • CCT
  • other social programs

7
3 CLUSTERS OF THE POVERTY REDUCTION PROGRAMS
POVERTY REDUCTION PROGRAMS
Cluster 2 Community Empowerment Programs
Cluster 3 SMEs Programs
Cluster 1 Program on Social Welfare and Social
Security
S E L F R E L I A N C E
Target very poor, poor and near poor HH
Target Poor Communities
Target SMEs
8
II. Poverty Situation in Indonesia
9
Tingkat Kemiskinan di Indonesia 1976-2009
Poverty Trend in Indonesia 1976-2009
Notes Methodology improvement in 1996.
Sources Central Statistics Agency
10
Inequal distribution of poor people across regions
21 poor lives in Sumatera
21.9 poor are spreaded in the rest of the country
57.1 poor lives in Java-Bali
11
Sources Susenas 2009, CSA
12
  • National Program for Community Empowerment
  • (PNPM Mandiri)

13
1. PNPM Mandiri
  • A national program to reduce poverty through
    community empowerment with the objective of
    increasing community capacity self-help group
    to achieve better standard of living welfare ?
    poverty reduction is more sustainable

2. Why is PNPM?
Harmonize empowerment activities implemented by
various ministries to reduce inefficiency
overlapped activities, mechanisms, and
communitys institutions. Better targeting the
poor at sub districts and villages.
14
PNPM Components
  • a. Community Empowerment
  • Facilitator provision to increase community
    awareness and capacity to form a self-help group
    advisory body at the village.
  • Output formation of self-help group and
    elected advisory body.
  • b. Community grant
  • Provide community grant to the formed self-help
    group, to finance identified activities, selected
    in the advisory bodys forum.
  • The grant is an open menu for a) basic
    infrastructure (rural road irrigations,
    school/health post renovations, etc) b) economic
    activities, etc.
  • c. Local government and stakeholder capacity
    building
  • A set of activities for strengthening local
    government stakeholder capacity to create a
    positive, conducive, synergetic environment for
    the community, in particular for the poor.
  • d. Program Management MIS, Monitoring
    Evaluation, operational supports

15
How does the empowerment process work?
4. Social Mapping
5. Community Organizating
3. Poverty Reflections
6. Planning
7. Implementation
2. Community Meetings
8. Beneficiaries
  • Socialisation
  • in the communities

16
Putting poverty reduction activities in the hand
of the community ? for sustainability
  • RESPONSIVE GOVERNMENT/EMPOWERED COMMUNITIES
  • Strengthening bottom-up planning and budgeting
  • Improving local government representation and
    responsiveness (sub-districts, village heads,
    village legislative bodies, etc)
  • Improving social service delivery to the poor.
  • Pro-poor planning and budgeting
  • MARKET LINKAGES
  • Microfinance
  • Smallholder development
  • Information technology
  • Renewable energy
  • Non-bank (micro-credit institutions)
  • SOCIAL PROTECTION
  • Womens participation
  • Justice for the Poor
  • Helping Marginal Groups
  • Budget transparency
  • Community trust funds
  • Sustainability

Block grant tansfer to the poor communities
17
Harmonization Stages
2009 - 2015
2007-2008 (Transition)
  • 1.Harmonize PNPM-core programs by
  • Formulate a General guidelines manuals
  • Monitoring-evaluation, MIS, Complain handling
  • Technical ops. Manuals of each core program
  • Focus location of PNPM core to poor kecamatan and
    desa to provide platform for PNPM-Support later
    on.
  • 2.Increase coordination by establishing PNPM
    National Oversight Body PNPM Coordination Team
    at provincial and district level.
  • 3.Identify and integrate PNPM-support from
    sectoral programs onto PNPM-Core.
  • 4.Improve facilitators quality (training)
    mobilization
  • Sinchronize community participatory planning
    process into the regular/local government
    development plan.
  • Improve integration and synergy between PNPM-Core
    and Support
  • Integrated MIS for better monitoring and
    evaluation
  • Increase Local Government Ownership for a
    decentralized program.

18
Impact of PNPM on employment (2009)
No. Employed staff Persons/years
1. National Level 61
2. Province Level 220
3. District Level 686
4. Sub-District Level - Sub-District Facilitator - UPK Management Staff (from the community) 9,570 13,113
5. Village Level Village Facilitator 11,998
Total of employed staff Total of employed staff 35,648
Employment at the community level (work-days) Employment at the community level (work-days) 741,868
2009 is not a full year data yet. In 2007
total employment generated at the community level
was 9,97 mill work-days In 2008 16,8 million
work-days.
19
Impact on increases per capita consumption among
poor households Households in the first quintile
of predicted per capita consumption saw
approximately 10 greater gains in comparison
with control areas between 2002 and 2007.
Impact on expands access to health care
Household heads in PNPM areas were 11 more
likely to see expanded access to outpatient care.
20
Impact on Poverty Reduction Households in poor
kecamatan are 9-12 more likely to move out of
poverty than households in control areas.
21
IV. PNPM Mandiri Monitoring system (SIMPADU)
22
What is inside SIMPADU PNPM?
  • SIMPADU PNPM integrates data from 5 core programs
    within PNPM Mandiri.
  • Planning and realization data of PNPM activities
  • Provincial, district, and sub-district level
  • Time period from 2007 to 2010
  • Display demographic data from Podes 2006 (village
    data) and PPLS 2008 (poor HH data by name by
    address)

23
Features for Public Users
Available for anyone with internet access
  • National Province District
  • Total of 3 years, or by year
  • By Program

DASHBOARD
Create specific queries based on province,
district, sub-district, type of activities, or
time period
CREATE QUERIES
To view details of proposed and realized
activities, together with the profile of
particular sub-district
VIEW DATA
VIEW MAP
To create queries spatially
24
Features for Internal Users
Only accessible for the Management Control
Team, in order to conduct for advanced analysis
Visual Analysis Baseline Data, Realization of
Activities, Demography data, and Disaster Data
GRAPHICS
Maximum, Minimum, Average, Variants, Deviation
STATISTICS
Create Reports of Proposed Activities, Progress
of Activities, Realization of Activities, and
Community Participation
REPORTS
View Data Distribution Spatially
THEMATIC MAPS
25
(No Transcript)
26
FUND ALLOCATION COMPARED TO THE NUMBER OF POOR
PEOPLE IN EACH PROVINCE
) Fund form National Budget and Regional Budget,
year 2010
27
THE COVERAGE OF PNPM MANDIRI (NUMBER OF
SUB-DISTRICT)
28
THE USE OF BLOCK GRANT BY THE COMMUNITIES
) Data based on PNPM Rural, PNPM Urban, and PNPM
Underdeveloped and Special Region, 2009
29
Distribution of Households without proper access
to Sanitation
Variable Percentage of Households without Access to Sanitation Variable Percentage of Households without Access to Sanitation Variable Percentage of Households without Access to Sanitation
Ranges Color Legend
- No Data
0 12.00
12.01 24.00
24.01 36.00
36.01 48.00
48.01 60.00
gt 60.00
30
PNPM Fund Distribution for Sanitation by District
Level in East Java, 2009
Variable Access/Transportation Variable Access/Transportation Variable Access/Transportation
Ranges Color Legend
- No Data
0 15,000,000
15,000,000 .01 25,000,000
25,000,000 .01 35,000,000
35,000,000 .01 45,000,000
45,000,000 .01 55,000,000
gt 55,000,000
31
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