Sustainability of Coffee Production and Trade In Ethiopia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Sustainability of Coffee Production and Trade In Ethiopia PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 725ca0-ZTFiO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Sustainability of Coffee Production and Trade In Ethiopia

Description:

The tree, if left alone will grow to a height of between 16 and 40 feet. ... For propagation of Arabica coffees, ripe red cherries are collected, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:68
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 35
Provided by: abab5
Learn more at: http://ababajuffar.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Sustainability of Coffee Production and Trade In Ethiopia


1
Sustainability of Coffee Production and Trade In
Ethiopia
  • John Nenghabi
  • Mimi Choudhury
  • Winta Terfari
  • NRSC 441
  • Professor Weil
  • December 9 2004

2
Birth Place of Coffee
  • Ethiopia is the oldest coffee exporter in the
    world
  • Ethiopian muslim merchants first exported coffee
    to 142 countries
  • In 1960, Ethiopia joined the Inter-African Coffee
    Organization and the International Coffee
    Organization

3
Coffee Plant
  • The original home of the coffee plant is Africa.
    To be exact, there are three different coffee
    plants, all related
  • Coffea Arabica  from Ethiopia, known from
    prehistoric times.
  • Coffea Robusta  from Congo, discovered in 1898.
  • Coffea Liberica  (Coffea Canephora) from Western
    Africa, of no great importance in coffee trade.

4
Background And Agronomy
  • Coffee (Caffea Arabica) is an evergreen, glabrous
    shrub or small tree up to five meters tall when
    un pruned. It originated from Ethiopia. It is
    disease resistant , withstands a wide range of
    soil pH, resistant to a wide variety of insects,
    tolerant to variation in photoperiods, shade,
    slopes and viruses. The plant is a natural
    tetraploid, (2n44) and self fertilizes.

5
Production
  • The coffee tree does not begin to produce its
    full yield until its sixth year and will continue
    prime production for about ten years, however
    Coffee plants may live on for 60 years. The tree,
    if left alone will grow to a height of between 16
    and 40 feet.

6
Culture
  • In Ethiopia traditional methods of plants on
    virgin soils is to put 20 seeds in each hole
    3.5/3.5 at the beginning of the rainy season.
    Half are eliminated naturally at six to twelve
    months. Seedlings are taken to the field and
    planted on contoured fields 2-3m apart in 3-5m
    rows. Holes are prepared 40x40x40cm and four
    seedlings planted in each. Coffee is often
    intercropped with food crops such as corn, beans
    and rice during the first few years

7
Overall Significance and Historical Background
  • For propagation of Arabica coffees, ripe red
    cherries are collected, pulped, and the mucilage
    is removed by fermentation.  The freshly picked
    seeds can either be planted immediately or dried
    for later use.  Drying takes place on wire mesh
    trays in the shade.  Dried seeds can be used up
    to a year or more if properly stored. 

8
Coffee Use In Ethiopia

                                                                                                                                                                                    
  • Cultural Importance
  • The beans are widely used as a beverage.
    Coffee is grown in Ethiopia mainly as a cash crop
    for export and is widely used locally as a
    masticatory since ancient times. It is also
    cooked in butter to make rich flat cakes. A
    fermented drink from the pulp is also produced
    locally.
  • Natural Fertilizer
  • Coffee pulp is good for manures, mulch
    and cattle feed.
  • Natural Stimulant/Drug
  • Caffeine is a wide spread additive in
    over the counter diet pills, pain killers and
    stimulants.

 
9
Husbandry and Management
  • The coffee tree requires a mean temperature of
    66-77 degrees Fahrenheit (19-25 degrees Celsius).
    Thus, the coffee tree is a tropical plant. It is
    not a coincidence that coffee and humans thrive
    in the same temperatures. Our original home is
    the same - Africa. It is quite possible that Eve
    and her contemporaries (about 2.8 million years
    ago) munched coffee beans for pleasure.

10
Is coffee growing sustainable?
  • Clean weed control is necessary through out the
    entire season. Pruning is common practice in some
    districts. Mulching and green manure are commonly
    used with chemical fertilizers coming more and
    more into use. Typical applications consist of
    175g N, per bush, 100g P and 175g K. P and K
    added in two applications and N added over a
    longer period of time with 4-5 applications.
    Other elements are added as soils require them.
    Shading tends to favor leaf and shoot growth at
    the expense of the roots.

11
Holiday for Growers
  • Grow your own Coffee Plant
  • Coffea arabica
  • Average economic age of plants 30-40 years with
    some 100 years plantations still bearing. Trees
    come into bearing 3-4 years after planting and
    are in full bearing at 6-8 years. Fruits mature
    7-9 months after flowering. Selective picking of
    ripe red fruits produces highest quality. In
    Ethiopia, harvest season is October-December

12
Fertilization
  • The Arabica species is self-pollinating, whereas
    the Robusta species depends on cross
    pollination.  About 6-8 weeks after the flowers
    are fertilized, cell division occurs and the
    fruit remains as a pin head for a period that is
    dependent upon the climate. 

13
Traditional Methods vs. Conventional
  • In Ethiopia traditional methods of plants on
    virgin soils is to put 20 seeds in each hole
    3.5x3.5 at the beginning of the rainy season.
    Half are eliminated naturally at six to twelve
    months. Seedlings are taken to the field and
    planted on contoured fields 2-3m apart in 3-5m
    rows. Holes are prepared 40x40x40cm and four
    seedlings planted in each. Coffee is often
    intercropped with food crops such as corn, beans
    and rice during the first few years . Clean weed
    control is necessary through out the entire
    season. Pruning is common practice in some
    districts. Mulching and green manure are commonly
    used with chemical fertilizers coming more and
    more into use.

14
Research And Analysis
  • Mazzafera and his colleagues discovered three
    naturally decaffeinated varieties after screening
    3000 Ethiopian coffee trees, representing 300
    strains. Experiments on the plants demonstrated
    that they lacked caffeine synthase, the enzyme in
    leaves that converts a compound called
    theobromine into caffeine.
  • As well as eliminating the need for solvent
    extraction, the discovery could also be an
    alternative to decaffeinated plants created by
    knocking out the gene for the same enzyme via
    genetic engineering

15
Weather Conditions
  • The subtropical regions, at high altitudes of
    16-24 C. Rainy and dry seasons must be well
    defined, and altitude must be between 1800-3600
    feet.  These conditions result in one growing
    season and one maturation season, usually in the
    coldest part of autumn. 

16
Harvest
  • Each year coffee is harvested during the dry
    season when the coffee cherries are bright red,
    glossy, and firm.

17
Land Use in Ethiopia
  • -Ethiopia is 112.4 million ha.
  • -Only 3 of the cultivated land (1.7 of total
    land area) is used for coffee approximately
    400,000 ha.
  • -95 of this land is cultivated by small land
    holders (fields smaller than 2 ha)

18
Types of Coffee Production
  • 1)Forest Coffee
  • 2)Semi Forest Coffee
  • 3)Garden Coffee
  • 4)Plantation Coffee

                             
                              
                              
19
Harvesting Methods
  • Dry Method-
  • 80-85 exported
  • 3-4 weeks
  • Dried then outer layer removed (hulled)
  • Problem use timber for drying
  • Wet Method-
  • 15-20 exported
  • over 400 washing plants
  • wet pulp fermented and washed
  • Problem waste pulp (sometimes acidic) leached
    into local waterways
  • Alternatives
  • -Fruit pulp yield 127 liters of alcohol.
  • -Pulp can be fed to sheep.
  • -Fed to cattle during dry season if ensiled with
    grasses and molases.

20
Effect of Coffee Production On Genetic Diversity
  • Value of Ethiopian Coffee Beans
  • Coffee Arabica

                      
Most conservation efforts (ex-situ) -Coffee Berry
Disease (CBD) 4 Conservation sites-
Kontir-Berhan, Boginda-Woreda, Boginda-Yeba
and Geba-Dogi
21
Insitu Conservation Yayu Forest Coffee Gene
Reserve
  • 1)Size of Reserve
  • 2)Zoning
  • Core Buffer 1 Buffer 2
  • 3)Improve Multiple Use
  • Bees and Vegetables

-Coffee bushes caged with bees yield 52 more
berries than bushes caged without bees. -Use
soil and grass bunds grow dry season vegetables.
22
Effect on Wetlands
  • Ethiopian Wetland Research Program
  • Coffee production displace cereal crops from
    interfluves (The region of higher land between
    two rivers that are in the same drainage system )
  • - so crops are shifted to wetlands- dried and
    remove native vegetation.

23
Increased Degradation due to
  • Increased Deforestation
  • -cleared for agriculture, timber, fuel wood and
    narcotics
  • Increased Immigration
  • -Influx of migrants during peak season
  • Lack of conservation management and education
  • -Lack of funds
  • Lack of land ownership
  • -farms owned by Country
  • Political and social problems
  • -Warfare, Famine

24
(No Transcript)
25
The Third World Dependence on Primary Products
  • Out of 141 developing countries, 95 depend for
    more than half of their export earnings on
    agricultural commodities (UN 2003)
  • 70 depend only on three commodities or less,
    making them susceptible to price slumps and
    volatility
  • Most of these countries are located in Africa and
    Latin America
  • Most will remain as part of the heavily indebted
    poor countries (HIPCs).

26
Real Agricultural Commodity Price trends (1980
100) (source FAO)
Plummeting Prices
27
World Coffee Prices
  • According to the
  • International Coffee
  • Organization, coffee
  • prices
  • Plunged to a 30-year low
  • Decreased by 70 in the last four years
  • Continues to decrease

28
World Market Share
                    
Ethiopia exports only green coffee beans (not
roasted), it is limited to supplying raw
materials at a fixed price to the roasters (and
end product sellers) like Starbucks, Nestle,
Kraft, Sara lee etc whose coffee brands are
worth 1 billion or more in annual sales (OXFAM
2002)
29
Coffee Nucleus of the Economy
  • 60 of Ethiopian exports
  • Livelihood of 1.2 million coffee farmers
  • Small farmers produce 90 of the coffee (the rest
    by state farms)
  • Coffee supports 15 million families (1/4th of
    population) dependent on coffee

30
Social Impact on Farmers
  • Crippled coffee farmers
  • Unable to afford health services
  • Unable to send children to school
  • Production has declined by 20-30
  • Selling at a loss
  • Abandoning coffee for other cash crops (chat)

Vicious POVERTY cycle ?
31
Impact on Economy
  • Pre-existing situation
  • Drought
  • War
  • Debt servicing (105 million out of 6 billion in
    2003/04) GDP
  • Classified one of the poorest countries in the
    world
  • Per Capita Income 100
  • 40 50 of people live on less than a dollar
    per day
  • Less production
  • Less consumption
  • Less foreign exchange (dented reserves)
  • Less import
  • More dependence on international donors
  • More debt
  • More POVERTY

32
Coffee Production Potential
  • Suitable altitude
  • Ample rainfall
  • Optimum temperatures
  • Appropriate planting
    materials
  • Fertile soil

33

"Before you've finished your breakfast this
morning, you'll have relied on half the world" -
Martin Luther King
34
Hopes for Sustainability?
Innovative Farmer Cooperatives The Oromiya
Coffee Farmers Cooperative Union has launched
feasibility studies to embark construction of
'tukuls' and resort outlets for tourists and
visitors in various coffee forest areas scattered
around Oromiya region November 14th, 2004
http//allafrica.com/stories/200411151271.html Fai
r Trade movement JOIN THE BIG NOISE
WWW.MAKETRADEFAIR.ORG .
The Ethiopia Coffee Quality Project (20032006)
aims to improve quality, consistency and
traceability of different coffees, to meet market
demands.
About PowerShow.com