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PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development

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PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development Chapter 7 The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development


1
PSYC 2314Lifespan Development
  • Chapter 7
  • The First Two Years
  • Psychosocial Development

2
Early Emotions
  • First Half Year
  • Distress
  • Sadness
  • Interest
  • Pleasures
  • Social smiles
  • Laughter

3
Early Emotions
  • The Older Infant
  • Stranger wariness
  • Separation anxiety

4
Early Emotions
  • Social Referencing
  • Look to trusted adult for emotional cues in
    uncertain situation
  • Self-awareness
  • A persons realization that (s)he is a distinct
    individual whose body, mind, and actions are
    separate from those of other people.

5
Origins of Personality
  • Personality the multitude of emotions,
    behaviors, and attitudes that characterize each
    person, distinguishing one from another.
  • Learning theory traditional vs. later theorists

6
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Oral Stage
  • The mouth is the infants prime source of
    gratification and the mothers attitudes
    regarding feeding and weaning are a critical
    factor in the infants psychological development.
  • Anal Stage
  • Sensual pleasure is derived from stimulation of
    the bowels, and toilet training becomes the focal
    point.

7
Infant Day Care
  • Preschoolers experience early and extended
    amounts of high quality day care, they show more
    positive outcomes than children without such
    experience.

8
Infant Day Care
  • Four factors essential to high quality day care
  • Adequate attention to each child
  • Encouragement of sensorimotor exploration and
    language development
  • Attention to health and safety
  • Well-trained and professional caregivers

9
Infant Day Care
  • Infants were likely to become insecurely attached
    if
  • Their mothers were insensitive
  • The day-care quality was poor
  • They were in day care more than 20 hours per week

10
Eriksons Psychosocial Stages of Infant
Development
  • Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

11
Temperament
  • A relatively consistent inborn dispositions that
    underlie and affect a persons response to
    people, situations, and events.
  • It is epigenetic.

12
Temperament
  • Nine Characteristics
  • Activity Level
  • Rhythmicity
  • Approach-withdrawal
  • Adaptability
  • Intensity of Reaction
  • Threshold of Responsiveness
  • Quality of Mood
  • Distractibility
  • Attention Span

13
Temperament
  • 3 types of temperament
  • Easy
  • Slow-to-warm-up
  • Difficult
  • Goodness of fit
  • Environment affects temperament. It is best for
    parents to adjust their child-rearing
    expectations to their childs temperamental
    style.

14
Big Five Dimensions of Personality
  • Extroversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Neuroticism
  • Openness

15
Interaction
  • Synchrony coordinated interaction between
    infant and caregiver in which each individual
    responds to and influences the other.

16
Attachments
  • An enduring emotional connection between people
    that produces a desire for continual contact as
    well feelings of distress during separation.
  • Secure attachment
  • Insecure attachment

17
Attachments
  • Attachment may also be influenced by the broader
    context in which the infant and mother live. The
    fathers contribution to child care, the nature
    of the marital relationship, financial and living
    conditions, and the cultural context in which the
    infant is nurtured are important influences
  • Secure attachment aids both cognitive and social
    development securely attached infants are more
    curious, outgoing and self directed.
  • Childs temperament has a greater impact on
    attachment than the parents caregiving patterns.

18
Adult Attachments
  • One important contribution to the development of
    a secure attachment in infants is the mothers
    view of her own early attachment experiences
  • Autonomous
  • Dismissing
  • Preoccupied
  • Unresolved
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