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War and Peace

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War and Peace HIS 1302 Chapter 27 The Road to Pearl Harbor Relations between Japan and the US deteriorated after Japan resumed its war against China in 1937 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: War and Peace


1
War and Peace
  • HIS 1302 Chapter 27

2
The Road to Pearl Harbor
  • Relations between Japan and the US deteriorated
    after Japan resumed its war against China in 1937
  • Neither the US or Japan desired war.
  • Roosevelt considered Nazi Germany to be a more
    dangerous enemy and dreaded the prospect of a
    two-front war

3
  • Cordell Hulls demands
  • Moderate viewpoint
  • US retaliation against Japan over Indochina
  • Japanese militarism
  • Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941)

4
Mobilizing the Home Front
  • - Emergency Powers
  • Democratic majorities slim
  • Conservatives in Congress fiscal oversight
  • Characteristics of FDR (leader, not
    administrator common sense)
  • Financing the war, ration, taxes, economic
    controls

5
  • Lack of centralized authority impeded
    mobilization, but production expanded
    dramatically
  • Manufacturing nearly doubled agricultural
    output rose 22 percent
  • Unemployment nearly disappeared
  • Productive capacity and per capita output
    increased especially dramatically in the South

6
The War Economy
  • James F. Byrnes economic czar
  • Office of War Mobilization controlled
    production, consumption, priorities, prices
  • National War Labor Board arbitrated disputes and
    stabilized wages
  • Despite rationing and wage regulations, American
    citizens experienced no real hardships during the
    war.

7
  • Organized labor wars effects on collective
    bargaining
  • Effect on Redistribution of wealth
  • Wealthiest 1 13.4 in 1935
  • Dropped to 6.7 in 1944
  • Income tax extended

8
War and Social Change
  • American mobility
  • Migration to jobs military posts
  • Wartime prosperity more marriages, higher
    birthrate

9
Minorities - Blacks
  • Effect of Hitlers policies
  • Arguments of black leaders
  • Blacks in the military
  • Effects of wartime economy
  • Educational opportunities
  • Great migration continues
  • Political clout
  • NAACP

10
  • Fair Employment Practices Commission
  • Race Riots?
  • Mexican labor
  • Zoot Suit Riots
  • American Indians

11
Treatment of German- and Italian-Americans
  • WWII produced less intolerance than WWI
  • Better able to distinguish between foreigners and
    Americans
  • American immigrants more opposed to German and
    Italian policies
  • More politically active

12
Internment of the Japanese
  • 112,000 Japanese Americans relocated into
    internment camps
  • Fear of political disloyalty, and the public was
    aroused by racial prejudice and Pearl Harbor
  • Hirabayashi vs. US (1943) upheld restrictions
  • Ex Parte Endo (1944) Supreme Court forbade
    interment of loyal Americans

13
Womens Contribution
  • Workforce
  • Women in male roles
  • Black Women
  • Dual roles workplace and home
  • Support networks declined
  • War-brides and separation

14
(No Transcript)
15
Allied Strategy Europe First
  • Japanese threat was remote, Hitler was the
    greatest threat was working to knock USSR out
    of the war
  • US and USSR wanted to establish a second European
    front in France
  • Churchill wanted strategic bombing raids on
    German cities and invasion of North Africa
    Churchill got his way

16
  • 1942 Allied planes began to bomb German cities,
    and an Allied force under Eisenhower invaded
    Africa
  • Rommels Afrika Corps surrendered in May 1943
  • Fall of 1943, USSR checked the Nazi advance at
    Stalingrad and the Allies were pushing their way
    up the Italian Peninsula

17
Germany Overwhelmed
  • D-Day, June 6, 1944
  • Millions of Soviet troops slowly pushed back the
    Axis lines
  • While Allies prepared for a general advance, the
    Germans launched a counterattack
  • Battle of the Bulge, costs and gains?

18
  • May 8, 1945
  • Death camps
  • Early news and FDRs response

19
Naval War in the Pacific
  • 1st priority Germany
  • 2nd priority stop Japanese expansion
  • Battle of Coral Sea
  • Midway turning point

20
Island Hopping
  • Goal of Island hopping
  • Solomon Islands (Guadalcanal)
  • Mid 1944 in range of Tokyo
  • Feb. 1945 Philippines, Leyte Gulf
  • Okinawa and Iwo Jima
  • Characteristic of Japanese fighting men

21
Atomic Bomb
  • FDR dies in April 1945 Harry S Truman becomes
    President
  • July learns of the A-bomb
  • Decisions?
  • Desire to end the war quickly?
  • USSR intervention
  • Hatred of the Japanese
  • Use of the bombs
  • Effects
  • United Nations

22
Wartime Diplomacy
  • No peace Split between US and USSR
  • Propaganda
  • Wartime image
  • Reality (Post-War image)
  • Big Three established European Advisory
    Commission to determine fate of Germany
  • Tehran and Yalta
  • Establishment of UN (Sec. Council and Gen.
    Assembly)

23
Allied Suspicion of Stalin
  • Division among the Allies
  • Stalin resented the delay in a second front
  • Spread of USSR into satellite nations
  • Self-determination vs. Soviet expansion

24
Yalta and Potsdam
  • Yalta - FDR and Churchill agreed to allow USSR
    control of Eastern Poland
  • Stalin agreed to free elections in Poland (never
    happened)
  • Potsdam formalized occupation of Germany
  • Truman takes hard line against USSR
  • Suspicions begins the Cold War
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