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Biotechnology - engineering of organisms for useful purposes

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Biotechnology - engineering of organisms for useful purposes DNA Fingerprinting Cloning What is DNA Fingerprinting? The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the same. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biotechnology - engineering of organisms for useful purposes


1
Biotechnology - engineering of organisms for
useful purposes
  • DNA Fingerprinting
  • Cloning

2
What is DNA Fingerprinting?
  • The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the
    same.
  • The only difference between people (or any
    animal) is the order of the base pairs.
  • There are so many millions of base pairs in each
    person's DNA that every person has a unique and
    individual sequence.

3
What is DNA Fingerprinting?
  • Because there are so many millions of base pairs,
    the task of identifying EVERY base pair would be
    very time-consuming.
  • Instead, scientists analyze small segments of DNA
    where the base sequences tend to be the most
    variable ( 3 million bases) between individuals.
    (About 13 locations not coding for genetic
    traits)
  • The likelihood that any 2 people would share the
    same DNA profile is 1 in a quintillion (18 0s)
  • Scientists are able to determine whether two DNA
    samples are from the same person, related people,
    or non-related people.

4
How is a DNA fingerprint made?
  • 1) Restriction enzymes are added to the DNA
    sample to cut it up into smaller pieces or
    fragments

5
How is a DNA fingerprint made?
  • 2) Fragments are pulled through a gel (by an
    electrical charge) and distribute according to
    the size of the fragment

6
How is a DNA fingerprint made?
  • 3) An x-ray picture is taken of this distribution
    and then can be compared to other DNA samples

7
How is a DNA Fingerprint made?
  • Different people have different restriction
    enzyme cut sites

Resulting in different sized DNA fragments.
Person 1
Person 2
Resulting in different band patterns on a gel
8
What is DNA Fingerprinting used for?
  • Paternity/Maternity testing
  • Criminal investigations (proving guilt
    innocence!)
  • Identification of 9/11 victims other human
    remains
  • about 20,000 pieces of human remains were
    collected, a database of the victims DNA
    profiles was created
  • Super Bowl XXXIV Footballs
  • Marked with invisible, yet permanent, strand of
    synthetic DNA
  • 2000 Summer Olympic Souvenirs
  • Human DNA (Australian athletes) added to ink used
    to mark all official goods

9
What is DNA Fingerprinting used for?
  • Identify endangered and protected species as an
    aid to wildlife officials (could be used for
    prosecuting poachers)
  • Detect bacteria and other organisms that may
    pollute air, water, soil, and food
  • Match organ donors with recipients in transplant
    programs
  • Determine pedigree for seed or livestock breeds
  • Authenticate consumables such as caviar and wine
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