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The Ferment of Culture and Reform


The Ferment of Culture and Reform 1790-1860 Reviving Religion Vast changes in theology and religion Deism believed in a supreme being who had created the universe ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Ferment of Culture and Reform

The Ferment of Culture and Reform
  • 1790-1860

Reviving Religion
  • Vast changes in theology and religion
  • Deism believed in a supreme being who had
    created the universe and enabled humans with
    capacity for moral behavior
  • In God We Trust ??
  • Reliance on reason, science (Enlightenment)
  • Disbelief in original sin, divinity of Christ
  • God as ONE not Father, Son and Holy Spirit
  • Free will
  • Salvation through good deeds
  • Influenced many reforms temperance, suffrage,

Second Great Awakening Revivals
  • Second Great Awakening circa 1800
  • Reached an even larger audience than did the
    First Great Awakening
  • Revivals Traveling religious festivals
  • Energetic, entertaining preachers
  • Stimulated church membership in all parts of the
  • Growth of the Baptists and Methodists
  • Feminization of religion

Denominational Diversity
  • Religious affiliation tended to derive from
  • Most intellectual, wealthy were Episcopalians,
    Presbyterians, Unitarians
  • Concentrated in the North
  • Most uneducated, poor were Baptists and
  • Concentrated in the South
  • First the churches split, then the political
    parties split, then the Union split.

A Desert Zion in Utah
  • Joseph Smith
  • Founder of the Mormon faith
  • Oppression from those disapproving of Mormons
    forced them to constantly relocate
  • Shot and killed by mob
  • Brigham Young takes over
  • Moves Mormons west to Salt Lake City, Utah

Free Schools for a Free People
  • Public education originally seen as education
    of poor only looked down upon
  • Rich people Why should my tax money go to these
    brats who will only cause me trouble?
  • Expansion of suffrage cry for free education
  • Laboring factory works on the Industrial
    Revolution demanded tax-supported education for
  • A civilized nation that was both ignorant and
    free never was and never will be Thomas

Problems with early public schools
  • South was very reluctant to enact public
    education system
  • Schools only stayed open a few months a year
  • Ill-trained, ill-paid, ill-tempered MALE teachers
  • Eventually would be deemed essential to promote
    stability and democracy

Horace Mann (1796-1859)
  • Secretary of Board of Education, MA
  • Campaigned for more and better schoolhouses,
    better teachers, higher teacher pay, expanded
  • Influence spread to other states (Constitution
    leaves education up to states)
  • Blacks from all parts of country forbidden from
  • Breeding of Citizens Pledge of Allegiance

Higher Goals for Higher Learning
  • State supported universities spring up in the
    South (Jeffersons University of Virginia)
  • Stark contrast to the private, Ivy League schools
    in the North
  • Co-education of men/women looked down upon
  • Female only colleges
  • Tax-supported public libraries
  • Network of educational speakers
  • Magazines

An Age of Reform
  • The optimistic promises of the Second Great
    Awakening inspired countless souls to do battle
    against earthly evil.
  • Goal to create a perfected society (Utopia) free
    from cruelty, war, intoxicating drink,
    discrimination, and slavery.
  • Dawn of Capitalism and adjusting socially to
    the changing world.

Dorothea Dix
  • New England teacher
  • Fought for rights of incarcerated prisoners and
    mentally ill
  • Traveled cross-county collecting research on
    prison/hospital conditions
  • Petitioned the MA legislature to pass measures
    for improvement of prisoner/patient treatment

  • Temperance movement to reduce alcohol
    consumption/abuse in US
  • Excessive alcohol consumption caused fights,
    decrease in efficiency of labor, work accidents,
    sanctity of the family (safety of the children)
  • Affected all walks of life Men, women, children,
    clergymen, politicians
  • Maine Law of 1851 prohibited the sale and
    distribution of liquor in Maine other NE states
    followed eventually expired or ruled

Women in Revolt
  • At the beginning of the 19th century, women were
    socially comparable to slaves
  • They could not vote
  • Expected to remain sub servant to a master
    (husband in this case)
  • Beating of women was legal (Rule of Thumb)
  • Could not retain property rights when wed all
    property went to husband
  • Better than conditions of women in Europe rape
    was punishable by death here

Ticket out the Door
  • Choose a reform movement. (Temperance, Public
    Schools or Womens Suffrage)
  • On a blank piece of paper, I want you to divide
    the page in half.
  • In each half I want you to draw a large outline
    of a face.
  • In each face, I want you to draw opposing side
    REACTIONS to these reform movements.
  • These are due at the end of class!