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Civil Rights

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Civil Rights - University of San Diego ... Civil Rights – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Civil Rights


1
Civil Rights
2
What are civil rights?
  • Civil Liberties
  • Constitutional protections from government power.
    Liberty is protected when government does
    nothing.
  • Civil Rights
  • Guarantees to equal treatment under the laws that
    government must secure on behalf of its citizens.
    Government is obligated to act.

3
Tyranny of the Majority
  • When a majority is included in a faction, the
    form of popular government...enables it to
    sacrifice to its ruling passion or interest both
    the public good and the rights of other
    citizenswe well know that neither moral nor
    religious motives can be relied on as an adequate
    control.

4
The Large Republic solution?
  • In a Republic, it may well happen that the
    public voice, pronounced by the representatives
    of the people, will be more consonant to the
    public good than if pronounced by the people
    themselves, convened for the purpose
  • Extend the sphere, and you take in a greater
    variety of parties and interests you make it
    less probable that a majority of the whole will
    have a common motive to invade the rights of
    other citizens or if such a common motive
    exists, it will be more difficult for all who
    feel it to discover their own strength, and to
    act in unison with each other.

5
Why did this solution fail African Americans?
6
White tyranny
  • Slavery
  • 13th, 14th, 15th amendments
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

7
Jim Crow Laws
  • Disenfranchisement
  • White primary.
  • Poll tax.
  • Literacy test.
  • Grandfather clauses provided to protect poor and
    illiterate whites.
  • Segregated public accommodations
  • Segregated transportation
  • Segregated education
  • Restrictive covenants

8
Letter from the Birmingham Jail
  • What is Kings argument?
  • Do you agree?
  • Are there limits to his argument?

9
Questions
  • Examples of Social Movements

10
Questions
  • Examples of Social Movements
  • Characteristics of Social Movements

11
Characteristics
  • No specific size
  • No membership criteria
  • No formal structure
  • Not hierarchically organized

12
Questions
  • Examples of Social Movements
  • Characteristics of Social Movements
  • Why do people join them?

13
Why do people join them?
  • Personal advantage
  • Principled commitment
  • Group solidarity
  • Desire to be part of a group

14
Questions
  • Examples of Social Movements
  • Characteristics of Social Movements
  • Why do people join them?
  • How do they try to get what they want?

15
Tactics
  • Emphasis on outsider strategies (but not
    exclusively)
  • Refer to a cultural repertoire of routines of
    collective action

16
Questions
  • Examples of Social Movements
  • Characteristics of Social Movements
  • Why do people join them?
  • How do they try to get what they want?
  • What gives rise to them?

17
What gives rise to a social movement?
  • Unaddressed oppression/grievances
  • Movement entrepreneurs
  • Changes in political opportunity structure

18
Questions
  • Examples of Social Movements
  • Characteristics of Social Movements
  • Why do people join them?
  • How do they try to get what they want?
  • What gives rise to them?
  • What keeps them going?

19
What keeps a social movement going?
  • Cohesive social groups
  • Keeping focus
  • But successful movements broaden
  • Avoiding radicalization
  • But consensus movements generate radicals

20
Evolution of the Civil Rights Movement
  • NAACP legal strategies
  • Smith v. Alright (1945) White primaries
  • Swett v. Painter (1950)
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • World War II
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

21
Evolution of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Nonviolent resistance
  • 1955 Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott
  • 1960 Greensboro, NC and other lunch counter
    sit-ins
  • 1961 Freedom Rides on interstate buses
  • 1963 Birmingham, AL demonstrations
  • 1963 March on Washington
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 makes it illegal to
    discriminate in public accommodations, schools,
    and employment
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlaws literacy tests
    and discriminatory local and state voting laws
    provides for federal registration of voters in
    low voting areas requires pre-clearance of
    changes to state voting laws

22
Later developments
  • Remedial action
  • Affirmative action

23
See both sidesCurrent civil rights issues
  • Should the police be able to pull someone over
    without any other reason than that they belong to
    a racial group that is popularly associated with
    crime?
  • Should airport baggage screeners spend more time
    screening Arab or Arab-looking men than other
    people?
  • Should gay partners property automatically go to
    the other when one partner dies? (Should communal
    property laws apply to gay couples?)
  • Should states be able to pass laws requiring that
    all state business (including forms, etc.) be
    conducted in English?
  • Should bosses be prosecuted under Civil Rights
    laws for propositioning their employees?
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