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The sun, the earth, and the moon

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Our Solar Centre The Sun An Example of a _____ Has _____ A tall funnel of twisting _____ mmm! Can be 20,000km (diameter) and spins at 500 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The sun, the earth, and the moon


1
The sun, the earth, and the moon
2
Our Solar Centre
  • The Sun
  • An Example of a _____________
  • Has ________________
  • A tall funnel of twisting ______________ mmm!
  • Can be 20,000km (diameter) and spins at
    500,000km/h
  • Has a temperature of several million degrees
    Celsius

3
The Sun a Typical Star
  • Composed mainly of
  • ___________________
  • ___________________
  • Also has heavier elements
  • ___________________
  • ___________________
  • ___________________
  • Was born about 5 billion years ago, and will live
    for about 5 billion more years

4
The Nature of the Sun
  • Emits ____________________ in almost all forms
    found in the electromagnetic spectrum
  • Visible light, UV radiation (causes sunburn)
  • Its mass is estimated by observing how fast the
    planets, etc. ____________ around it
  • Nuclear reactions in the Sun are the same ones in
    the most powerful _________________________
  • ____________________ is converted into
    ___________ (releases ENERGY)

5
Layers of the Sun
  • 6 main layers
  • _______________________________________
  • Inner part, temps at 15 million degrees Celsius
  • Where nuclear fusion happens
  • __________________________________________
  • Outside the core, dense plasma
  • Light takes 100,000 years to pass through it
    (meaning...?)
  • __________________________________________
  • Big bubbles of hot plasma ooze up to surface,
    w/energy
  • Cool plasma come down from surface to heat up
    again
  • Constant circulation of plasma is called
    convection
  • _______________________________________________
  • Boundary between inside and outside of Sun,
    making it yellow
  • What we see on Earth ? has the lowest temperature
    of 5500 degrees C
  • __________________________________________
  • Reddish, but cant see it unless theres a solar
    eclipse b/c of photosphere
  • ________________________________________
  • Outermost layer, extends for millions of km most
    visible during solar eclipse

6
Label Our Sun!! ?
7
Surface Features of the Sun
  • The Sun has a __________________ field
  • Generated by movement of _______________ deep in
    Sun
  • It extends far out into space
  • Very powerful

8
Surface Features of the Sun
  • _____________________
  • A region on surface of the Sun thats
    ______________ than surrounding areas
  • Where magnetic field is extremely ______________
  • This slows down _______________________ ? no
    mixing of plasma
  • Cools from 600oºC ? 4000ºC
  • Every ______ yrs, max sunspots reached

9
  • ___________________
  • A large, usually curved, bright stream of
    particles
  • Extends out from ___________________ into
    ____________
  • May last for many _________________

10
  • ___________________
  • Massive __________________ at surface of Sun
  • Interacts with ____________________ and corona
  • Flings hot plasma into space

11
  • __________________________________________
  • Extremely powerful kind of _______________
  • Large amount of plasma is thrown out at
    __________
  • Earths magnetic field protects us when this
    meets the Earth
  • Causes _______________
  • Can damage orbiting satellites and electrical
    transmission lines

12
Learning Checkpoint
  1. Which two elements make up more than 99 of the
    Sun?
  2. Where in the Sun does nuclear fusion occur?
  3. Name four types of surface features of the Sun.
  4. How can a coronal mass ejection on the Sun cause
    damage on Earth?

13
Suns Effects on Earth
  • ________________
  • Constant flow of charged particles streaming out
    of the Suns surface in all directions
  • Helped to create the _________________
  • Electrical equipment can be damaged by this

14
  • _________________________ (Northern Lights)
  • Solar wind creates this display of green, yellow,
    and red light in the skies
  • ____________________________ (Southern Lights)
  • Happens when charged particles of solar wind
    collide with atoms in Earths atmosphere
  • Particles are trapped from solar wind in magnetic
    field and taken towards north and south poles

15
How the Solar System Formed
  • After Sun was formed (from what!?!?) the leftover
    dust, gases, etc. in nebula continued to spin
  • This created a ___________ around the new star
  • Bodies began to form
  • Created our planets, moons, asteroids, comets
  • This is how other star-and-planets systems formed
    too
  • _____________ a celestial object orbiting one or
    more stars can form a spherical shape
  • ___________________ create and radiate own light
    ? just reflects light of star(s) it orbits

16
Rocky Inner Planets
  • Formed when spinning dust and gas slammed into
    each other and started _______________ together
  • __________________ particles made more collisions
    and grew faster
  • Gravity caused them to contract and bind together
  • Objects too near the Sun got sucked into it
  • Four large objects lasted Mercury, Venus, Earth,
    Mars

17
Earths Moon
Mars is the only other rocky planet with moons!!
  • Few hundred million years later...something as
    big as ___________ may have hit the Earth
  • Objects re-melted and mixed
  • Metal core melded with Earths core
  • Crusts melded together
  • Earth cooled
  • Pieces of debris from collision were caught by
    Earths gravity and eventually compacted into the
    Moon

18
Asteroid Belt
  • Between __________ and ________________
  • Small as grains of sand ? 1000km across
  • Scientists look for these near other stars
  • Could indicate there are rocky planets there
    too!!
  • This is where we got the age of the solar system
  • Asteroids fell to Earth and oldest one was 4.56
    billion
  • Earth was therefore formed at the same time
  • Sun must have been around while earlier

19
Gaseous Outer Planets
  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
  • After asteroid belt, ______________________
  • On Sun side of this line, its where Suns
    radiation keeps H2O in gas phase
  • In snow line, waters cooled and forms droplets,
    then freezes
  • Ice acted as a _____________ for gas and dust to
    stick together ? these planets grew faster!!
  • All gas giants are orbited by many moons ?
    Jupiter and Saturn each have more than 60!!

20
Minor Planets
  • After gas giants, many large balls of ice formed
    ? ___________________________ planets
  • Pluto most famous
  • 3 moons Nix and Hydra (tiny), and Charon (1/2
    Pluto)
  • Millions of objects besides these orbiting the
    Sun
  • Some larger, some smaller, than Pluto
  • Create a thin disk like asteroid belt around
    entire solar system
  • _________ of them are large enough to be
    considered minor planets

21
Comets and Meteors
  • ____________________ most distant region of SS,
    consisting of billions of fragments of ice and
    dust ? major source of comets
  • _________ celestial object made of ice and dust
  • Tail is created by sun heating and breaking apart
    some of the ice particles
  • __________________ small pieces of rock/metal
    travelling throughout the solar system (no path)
  • ________ meteoroid that enters Earths
    atmosphere and begins to burn up because of
    FRICTION
  • _____________________ a meteor that does not
    burn up completely and hits Earth

22
Earth in Motion
  • At _______________ 12 h daylight, 12 h night
  • In ___________________ some days, Sun doesnt
    set (summer) and some days, Sun doesnt rise
    (winter)
  • What causes this?
  • __________________________________________________
    ________________________________________

23
Two Types of Motion
  • _______________________
  • _________________________
  • One complete spin (counter clockwise) of the
    Earth on its AXIS
  • Takes about 24h
  • Earth moves at 1670 km/h
  • Axis is tilted at 23.5º
  • ______________________________________________
  • One complete orbit of Earth around the SUN
  • Takes about 1 year
  • _______________________
  • Tilted axis revolution
  • Tilted TO Sun summer
  • Tilted AWAY FROM Sun fall

24
Rotation and Revolution
25
The Moon
  • ____________ Earths mass
  • Also rotates on an _____________
  • Rotation and revolution are about ____________
  • 27.3 days, moon rotates and revolves once
  • This is why we always see the same side of the
    moon
  • Reflects Suns light ? changes in look (phases)
  • One complete change of phases ? lunar cycle
  • ___________ moon Earth between moon and sun
  • ______________ moon moon between Earth and sun

26
Eclipses
  • __________________Eclipse
  • When moon blocks Suns light to Earth
  • Two types
  • Partial Sun is partially blocked
  • Total Sun is completely blocked
  • _______________ Eclipse
  • When Earth blocks Suns light from shining on
    moon
  • Two types
  • Partial moon is partially blocked
  • Total moon is completely blocked

27
Tides
  • The alternate rising and falling of level of
    oceans everyday
  • Caused by
  • Rotation of the Earth in the presence of the Moon
  • Rotation of the Earth in the presence of the Sun
  • Example Bay of Fundy
  • Largest difference between high tide and tow tide
    levels (as much as 17 m in one day!)
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