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The Inner Planets

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The Inner Planets – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Inner Planets


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The Inner Planets
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Mercury
  • Closest planet to the sun
  • Surface has many craters and looks like the moon
  • Cliffs that may have formed from the iron rich
    core to cool and contract causing the crust to
    shrink
  • Very little gravity
  • Gases that could form an atmosphere easily escape
  • Thin atmosphere made of sodium, potassium,
    helium, and hydrogen
  • 450 C during day, -170 at night

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Venus
  • 2nd planet from the sun
  • Similar size and mass of the earth
  • Atmosphere has 90 x the pressure then the earth
  • Made up of mostly carbon dioxide
  • Clouds contain droplets of sulfuric acid, give
    them a yellowish look.
  • Solar energy is trapped by atmosphere, temp. can
    reach 470 C

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Earth
  • 3rd Planet from the sun
  • Average distance from the sun is 150 million
    kilometers. (93 million Miles)
  • Surface temp. of earth allows water to exist in
    all three states (solids, liquids, and gas)
  •       Ozone, ( O3) exists in the layer of the
    atmosphere known as the stratosphere
  • Ozone protects life from the ultraviolet
    radiation

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Mars
  • The fourth planet from the sun
  • Red planet because of the iron oxide in the rocks
  • Contains the largest volcano in the solar system
    (Olympus Mons)
  • Large rift, zones have formed in the Martian
    Crust
  • Has two polar ice caps that change in size
  • Northern pole Water ice
  • South Pole Frozen carbon dioxide

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  • Mars is 55 million Km at the closest point to the
    earth (34,182,722 miles)
  • Would take 3 years to get to mars
  • Two moons Phobos and Deimos
  • Long channels in the surface Flowing water
  • Atmosphere is made up of Carbon Dioxide,
    nitrogen, argon
  • Much thinner then ours

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Outer Planets
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Jupiter
  • 5th planet from the sun
  • Largest planet Has a faint ring around it
  • Composed of mostly gases and liquid hydrogen,
    helium and some ammonia, methane and water vapor
  • Great Red Spot (large hurricane)

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  • 28 moons
  • Four largest, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto
  • Gallileo discovered them in 1610
  • Volcanoes continually erupt on Io
  • Ocean of liquid water is hypothesized to exist
    under the ice crust of Europa

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Saturn
  • Sixth planet from the sun
  • Ringed planet
  • Second largest
  • Has the lowest density, so low that the planet
    would float on water
  • Gaseous planet
  • Atmosphere composed of hydrogen and helium

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  • Has several broad rings made of ice and rocks
  • At least 30 moons orbit Saturn, the largest being
    Titan
  • The environment on Titan might be similar to
    the environment on earth before oxygen became a
    major atmospheric gas

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Titan
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Uranus
  • Seventh planet from the sun
  • 21 moons and additional satellites
  • Has a system of thin, dark rings
  • Atmosphere is composed of hydrogen, helium, and
    some methane gives the planet a distinctive
    bluish green color
  • Axis of rotation is tilted on its side

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Neptune
  • Is the 8th planet from the sun most of the time
  • Methane in its atmosphere give neptune its blue
    green color
  • Outer layer changes from gas to a slushlike layer
    (melted ice) towards the interior
  • Towards the interior, this slushy material is
    thought to change into a solid

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  • Has a great dark spot
  • Winds in the gaseous portion exceed speeds of
    2400 km per hour
  • Eight moons Triton is the most unique
  • Has a great geyser that shoot gaseous nitrogen
    into space
  • Also has rings that are thin in some places and
    thick in other places

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Triton and Neptune
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Pluto
  • Is the farthest from the sun then any other
    planets during most of its orbit
  • Dense atmosphere, only outer planet with a solid
    rocky surface
  • Some people feel that Pluto was a moon that
    escaped from its orbit around Neptune
  • Only moon Charon (considered the double planet)

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Sedna
  • 10 planet from the sun
  • It is twice as far from the sun as any other
    solar system object and three times farther than
    Pluto or Neptune.
  • the orbit of Sedna is extreme elliptical
  • it takes 10,500 years to circle the sun.
  • On 15 March 2004, Sedna was discovered
  • the surface temperature is about 400 degrees
    below zero Farenheit
  • Sedna is at most about 1800 km in diameter

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