Modern History of South Africa Main Idea Statements - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Modern History of South Africa Main Idea Statements PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 724b6a-ZjZjY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Modern History of South Africa Main Idea Statements

Description:

Modern History of South Africa Main Idea Statements The separation of races was essential to the minority control over South Africa. Apartheid resulted in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:388
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 85
Provided by: Jsorgini
Learn more at: http://www.methacton.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Modern History of South Africa Main Idea Statements


1
Modern History of South Africa Main Idea
Statements
  1. The separation of races was essential to the
    minority control over South Africa.
  2. Apartheid resulted in the creation of a system of
    inequality and injustice for the majority of
    South Africans.
  3. Limited reforms were made to apartheid that had
    little effect on the lives of the majority of
    South African.
  4. Limited political and social reforms in South
    Africa resulted in Non-White African resistance
    to white repression. (being kept down by force)
  5. South Africa is making strides to dismantle the
    legacy of apartheid as well as working towards a
    more positive future through government reform.

2
Closure
  • A fundamental CAUSE of apartheid was..
  • A major EFFECT of apartheid was/is.

3
World Revolution DVD
  • Intro to Imperialism 700 minutes

4
South AfricaUse World Revolutions South Africa
DVD
5
Bantu Migration
6th Century
6
Bantu Migration
7
Brief History of South Africa
  • 1652 The Dutch arrived on the southern coast and
    established Cape Town
  • Boers Dutch for farmer
  • Afrikaners white Dutch descendants of South
    Africa
  • Afrikaans language

8
European settlement of South Africa began with
the arrival of Dutch commander Jan van Riebeeck
and his 90 men, who landed in 1652 at the Cape of
Good Hope under instructions by the Dutch East
India Company to build a fort and develop a
vegetable garden for the benefit of ships on the
Eastern trade route
9
(No Transcript)
10
Brief History of South Africa
  • 1815 The British took over the Dutch colony. The
    Boers resented the British and wanted their
    independence

11
Brief History of South Africa
  • 1834 The British end slavery in all of their
    colonies. The Dutch farming economy depends on
    slaves for labor, so they rebel against the
    British anti-slavery laws.

12
Brief History of South Africa
  • 1836 The Boer Trek or Great Trek
  • Cause When the British ended slavery, thousands
    of Boers left the south and headed north
  • saw as a threat to their way of life
  • Separatists

13
Great Trek
Bantu(Zulu)
14
(No Transcript)
15
Brief History of South Africa
  • Great Trek
  • Effects
  • 1850s The Boers established independent nations
    in the north.
  • Orange Free State Transvaal
  • clashed with the Zulu, who had migrated to the
    same area and owned the best farmland.
  • the British and defeated the Zulu
  • Anglo Zulu War

16
Anglo-Zulu War
  • Shakas successors could not keep power against
    superior British arms.
  • In 1879 the Anglo-Zulu War broke out.
  • Zulus are defeated

17
Shakas Military Innovations
  • Ikwla - Short spear was the principal weapon
    requiring close hand to hand combat.
  • Large cowhide shield was introduced.
  • Constant drilling to keep warriors physically
    fit.
  • Boys six and over were apprentice warriors who
    carried rations. They were highly organized.
  • Impi - Regiments were given various tasks based
    on the age range of the men making up the
    regiment.
  • Buffalo horn formation is credited to Shaka.

18
Shaka Reading King of the Zulus
19
(No Transcript)
20
An 1824 sketch of Shaka (1781 - 1828), the great
Zulu king, four years before his death. By James
King, it is the only known drawing of Shaka
In 1879 the Zulu army, under King Cetshwayo,
delivered a resounding and humiliating defeat to
the armed might of the British Empire at
Isandhlwana
21
Shaka Assassinated
  • In 1827, Shaka's mother, Nandi, died, and the
    Zulu leader lost his mind.
  • In his grief, Shaka had hundreds of Zulus killed,
    and he outlawed the planting of crops and the use
    of milk for a year.
  • All women found pregnant were murdered along with
    their husbands.
  • He sent his army on an extensive military
    operation, and when they returned exhausted he
    immediately ordered them out again.
  • On September 22, 1828, his half-brothers murdered
    Shaka.
  • Dingane, one of the brothers, then became king of
    the Zulus

22
Transvaal
Orange Free State
23
Brief History of South Africa
  • 1867 Diamonds were discovered in the Boers
    republic
  • 1884 Gold was discovered in the Boer republic

24
Brief History of South Africa
  • 1899-1902 The Boer War
  • Boers vs. British
  • Causes
  • British wanted control of the diamonds and gold.
    The Boers fought back for their independence.
  • Effects
  • ended with the British in control of all of South
    Africa
  • 1910 Britain granted self-government to the
    Union of South Africa

25
(No Transcript)
26
The Boer reply was to intensify guerilla war
General Jan Smuts (Boer), who had been Kruger's
state attorney, led his troops to within 190
kilometres of Cape Town and in response
Kitchener (British) adopted a scorched-earth
policy and set up racially separate civilian
concentration camps in which some 26 000 Boer
women and children and 14 000 black and mixed
race people were to die in appalling conditions.
27
Brief History of South Africa
  • 1910 Britain granted self-government to the
    Union of South Africa
  • Effects whites controlled the government
  • only Whites voted
  • Boers were the majority, they gained control

28
World Revolution DVD
  • Formal Apartheid 600

29
1948 Apartheid
  • Apartheid began in 1948, under the National Party
  • Rigid separation of races forced segregation
  • Afrikaans "separateness
  • All South Africans were classified White, Black,
    Mixed races or Asian (Indians mostly)
  • White South Africans 10
  • Black South Africans 79
  • Mixed 9
  • Asians 2

30
(No Transcript)
31
Apartheid Laws
  • Separate development justification
  • Bantustans/Homelands
  • was a territory set aside for South Africans
    Blacks
  • Pass laws
  • enacted to allowed South African Blacks out of
    their homelands for work
  • Could not officially live in cities (townships -
    Soweto)
  • Bantu Education
  • designed to ensure under achievement only
    preparing students for unskilled labor.
  • No voting for non-whites
  • Population Registration Act of 1950
  • Supported Ethnic divisions everywhere divided
    families
  • Job classification

32
(No Transcript)
33
"In 1953 the government passed the Bantu
Education Act, which the people didn't want. We
didn't want this bad education for our children.
This Bantu Education Act was to make sure that
our children only learnt things that would make
them good for what the government wanted to work
in the factories and so on they must not learn
properly at school like the white children. Our
children were to go to school only three hours a
day, two shifts of children every day, one in the
morning and one in the afternoon, so that more
children could get a little bit of learning
without government having to spend more money.
Hawu! It was a terrible thing that act."
34
(No Transcript)
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
(No Transcript)
38
(No Transcript)
39
Effects of Apartheid
  • Created a system of inequality and injustice
  • Guaranteed minority rule
  • South African Blacks labor basis of economy
  • Divided families

40
World Revolution DVD
  • Anti Apartheid Movement 1337-1800
  • 500 minutes

41
Brief History of South Africa
  • 1950s Opposition to apartheid forms
  • National and International

42
National Opposition
  • African National Congress formed 1912
  • Defiance Campaign
  • Mass Non-violence/ civil disobedience against
    unjust laws strkes and boycotts
  • Spear of the Nation militant branch
  • Opposed minority government
  • Formed first multiracial democratically elected
    government
  • Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika
  • The song was the official anthem for the African
    National Congress during the apartheid era and
    was a symbol of the anti-apartheid movement
    song
  • Now South Africa National Anthem

43
African National Congress
44
National Opposition
  • Sharpeville Massacre 1960
  • Cause Demonstration against passbooks
  • Effects worldwide protests against the South
    African government, ANC banned, 69 dead
  • Quote
  • It was then that police opened fire, without
    being given a order to do so. Panic gripped the
    marches. They immediately tried to flee but were
    unable to do so, due to the massive crowd
    surrounding them. Press reports later described
    the scene, "policeman on top of Saracen armored
    vehicles swung sten guns in a wide arc, gunning
    down the crowd. Bodies laid strewn in the road
    and on the pavement. The wounded fled into
    backyards and side streets. Children ran like
    rabbits. One by one the guns stopped". The final
    toll was 69 dead and 180 had bullet wounds, among
    them seriously injured.

45
  • Suddenly I heard chilling cries of "Izwe Lethu"
    it sounded mainly like the voices of women. Hands
    went up in the famous black power salute. That is
    when the shooting started. We heard the clatter
    of machine guns one after the other. The
    protestors thought they were firing blanks or
    warning shots. One woman was hit about 10 yards
    away from our car, as she fell to the ground  her
    companion went back to assist, he thought she had
    stumbled. Then he tried to pick her up, as he
    turned her around he saw her chest had been blown
    away from the hail of bullets. He looked at the
    blood on his hand and screamed "God she had been
    shot". Hundreds of kids were running like wild
    rabbits, some of them were gunned down. Shooting
    only stopped when no living protestor was in
    sight".

46
(No Transcript)
47
Sharpeville Massacre
48
  • The police later claimed they were in extreme
    danger because the crowed was stoning them. They
    also said that the crowd was armed with weapons
    which littered the compound when they left.
  • Photographs taken by the press later revealed
    that the protestors were unarmed and only hats,
    bicycles, shoes and other personal belongings
    were left among the dead and injured bodies. At
    that time no one dared to testify against the
    apartheid police.

49
National Opposition
  • Soweto Riots 1976
  • Cause Students joined the protest when a new law
    went into affect requiring Afrikaans in all
    public school symbol of white rule
  • Effects
  • Violence, arrests, Biko murdered

50
The Soweto demonstrations of 1976, the largest
outbreak of violence in South Africa since the
Sharpeville aftermath in 1960. On June 16, Soweto
school children demonstrating against the use of
Afrikaans as a language of instruction were met
with massive police force, unleashing a wave of
confrontations that resulted in close to 400
killed and thousands arrested. Large numbers of
youngsters fled the country, providing fertile
ground for recruitment of ANC guerrillas over the
following years.
Soweto Riots Video 400 use
Soweto Riots Video
https//vimeo.com/89553694 400 Copy and paste
into Explorer
51
(No Transcript)
52
Anti-Apartheid Leaders
  • Albert Luthuli
  • 1960 winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace,
    president of the ANC (1951), nonviolent
    resistance
  • Walter Sisulu
  • ANC, planning role in the "Spear of the Nation,
    26 years prison
  • Stephen Biko
  • Black Consciousness Movement
  • focused on the ability of black people to change
    the oppressive situation in South Africa by
    rejecting the system of apartheid

53
Anti-Apartheid Leaders
  • Archbishop Desmond Tutu
  • winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace, nonviolent
    resistance, (1980s)
  • Nelson Mandela (1918-2013)
  • see Biography questions
  • Brief CNN Video
  • Mandela Feb 4, 1994 Video
  • Mandala Pictures and Quotes
  • Timeline NYTimes Timeline
  • Remembering Mandela
  • Madiba - a sign of respect and affection

54
Albert Luthuli
55
Nelson Mandela
56
Nelson Mandela and Morgan Freeman
Mandela and Idris Elba
57
(No Transcript)
58
The Black Consciousness Movement was formed in
the mid- to late-1960s by Steve Biko, and like
minded activists in South Africa, as a reaction
to the Apartheid state's white racism and the
perceived paternalistic attitudes of white
liberal groups. The development of the BCM echoed
the growth of Black Power in the US. The
movement's ideology, although founded in black
Christianity, tended towards more militant and
radical solutions. This was despite Biko's
support for non-violent action (he was influenced
by Mahatma Gandhi). By 1976 the key leadership of
the BCM had either been banned or arrested. On 12
September 1977, its leader, Steve Biko died in
detention in a Pretoria prison cell.
59
Steve Biko was one of South Africa's most
significant political activists and a leading
founder of South Africa's Black Consciousness
Movement. His death in police detention in 1977
led to his being hailed as a martyr of the
anti-Apartheid struggle.
Steve Biko's grave, at King Williams Town. The
charismatic and brilliant leader of the "Black
Consciousness" movement among young South African
Blacks in the 1960s and 70s, Steve Biko was
arrested in 1977 and held without charge like
thousands of other suspected "subversives." On
September 12, 1977, Biko died in detention as a
result of beatings by security forces. His death
unleashed a wave of emotion which led to further
governmental crackdowns. Biko has remained a
symbol of Black pride and defiance.
60
10 Minute Biko Video
Cry Freedom Clip Meaning of Black Consciousness
61
Biko Peter Gabriel - 1980
  • September '77Port Elizabeth weather fineIt was
    business as usualIn police room 619Oh Biko,
    Biko, because BikoOh Biko, Biko, because
    BikoYihla Moja, Yihla Moja-The man is
    deadWhen I try to sleep at nightI can only
    dream in redThe outside world is black and
    whiteWith only one colour deadOh Biko, Biko,
    because BikoOh Biko, Biko, because BikoYihla
    Moja, Yihla Moja-The man is dead
  • You can blow out a candleBut you can't blow out
    a fireOnce the flames begin to catchThe wind
    will blow it higherOh Biko, Biko, because
    BikoYihla Moja, Yihla Moja-The man is deadAnd
    the eyes of the world arewatching nowwatching
    now
  • Play Song
  • We are the World
  • We are the World Haiti

62
Hector Pieterson being carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo
after being shot by South African police. His
sister, Antoinette Sithole runs beside them.
Pieterson was rushed to local clinic and declared
dead on arrival at the clinic
63
Umkhonto we Sizwe
64
In 1961, MK published a manifesto entitled
Umkhonto we Sizwe (Military wing of the African
National Congress) We are at War! "Our men are
armed and trained freedom fighters not
terrorists. We are fighting for
democracymajority rulethe right of the Africans
to rule Africa. We are fighting for a South
Africa in which there will be peace and harmony
and equal rights for all people. We are not
racialists, as the white oppressors are. The
African National Congress has a message of
freedom for all who live in our country."
65
(No Transcript)
66
Robben Island
67
Brief History of South Africa
  • 1964 Nelson Mandela, the leader of the African
    National Congress, was imprisoned
  • World opinion turns against the South African
    government Free Mandela Song 1984

68
Out of the night that covers me,Black as the Pit
from pole to pole,I thank whatever gods may
beFor my unconquerable soul.In the fell clutch
of circumstanceI have not winced nor cried
aloud.Under the bludgeonings of chanceMy head
is bloody, but unbowed.Beyond this place of
wrath and tearsLooms but the Horror of the
shade,And yet the menace of the yearsFinds, and
shall find, me unafraid.It matters not how
strait the gate,How charged with punishments the
scroll.I am the master of my fateI am the
captain of my soul. William Ernest Henley
Invictus
unbeaten unconquered
Poem recited by Morgan Freeman
69
Limited Reforms to Apartheid 1982 - 1983
  • Semantics
  • apartheid separate development
  • Passbooks identity cards
  • Laws with limited impact no real changes
  • Asian and mixed race into government with no
    power limited participation
  • Not illegal to have racially mixed marriages but
    illegal to live together
  • Organizations not banned but forbidden to hold
    meetings
  • Removal of examples of Petty Apartheid
  • Changed signs to blue and white figures

70
International Opposition
  • economic sanction and isolation
  • punitive measures to punish a country
  • United Nations placed an arms embargo on South
    Africa
  • Olympic Committee barred South African athletes
    from competition/Expelled from FIFA
  • United States imposed economic sanctions
  • Could not borrow from international lending
    organizations

71
International Opposition
  • divestment
  • economic boycott to pressure a government,
    industry, or company towards a change in policy
  • financial, ethical, or political objectives
  • although it hit the poor hardest
  • divestment threw blacks out of work
  • Tutu argued
  • at least South African Blacks would be suffering
    with a purpose"

72
(No Transcript)
73
  • We're rockers and rappers united and strongWe're
    here to talk about South Africa we don't like
    what's going onIt's time for some justice it's
    time for the truthWe've realized there's only
    one thing we can doI ain't gonna play Sun
    CityRelocation to phony homelandsSeparation of
    families I can't understand23 million can't vote
    because they're blackWe're stabbing our brothers
    and sisters in the backI ain't gonna play Sun
    CityOur government tells us we're doing all we
    canConstructive Engagement is Ronald Reagan's
    planMeanwhile people are dying and giving up
    hopeThis quiet diplomacy ain't nothing but a
    jokeI ain't gonna play Sun City
  • Boputhuswana is far awayBut we know it's in
    South Africa no matter what they sayYou can't
    buy me I don't care what you payDon't ask me Sun
    City because I ain't gonna playI ain't gonna
    play Sun CityIt's time to accept our
    responsibilityFreedom is a privilege nobody
    rides for freeLook around the world baby it
    can't be deniedWhy are we always on the wrong
    sideI ain't gonna play Sun CityRelocation to
    phony homelandsSeparation of families I can't
    understand23 million can't vote because they're
    blackWe're stabbing our brothers and sisters in
    the back
  • Play Song (1985) song

74
Effects
  • Sanctions slowed South Africas economy
  • Consolidated Gold Fields played a key role in
    ending apartheid in South Africa Michael Young,
    the company's public affairs director embarked on
    the controversial course of initiating secret
    discussions between the South African government
    and the ANC at the company's estate in Somerset,
    Mells Park House. This ultimately resulted in the
    release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 and the
    handover of power to majority rule the events
    are described in the 2009 television film
    "Endgame".
  • A growing number of white South Africans came to
    believe that apartheid must end in order for the
    country to grow

75
Show End of Apartheid Revolutions
  • 18-22

76
End of Apartheid
  • F.W. de Klerk (1989)
  • Lifted bans on opposition groups
  • Government repeals pass laws
  • They opened segregated facilities to ALL South
    Africans
  • Mandelas release from prison (1990)
  • New constitution officially ends apartheid,
    guaranteeing non-whites rights,
  • 1994 1st all-race election Mandela ANC
    (speech)

77
(No Transcript)
78
Out of the night that covers me,Black as the Pit
from pole to pole,I thank whatever gods may
beFor my unconquerable soul.In the fell clutch
of circumstanceI have not winced nor cried
aloud.Under the bludgeonings of chanceMy head
is bloody, but unbowed.Beyond this place of
wrath and tearsLooms but the Horror of the
shade,And yet the menace of the yearsFinds, and
shall find, me unafraid.It matters not how
strait the gate,How charged with punishments the
scroll.I am the master of my fateI am the
captain of my soul. William Ernest Henley
Invictus
unbeaten unconquered
Poem recited by Morgan Freeman
79
Challenges and the Future
  • Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  • Find the truth about apartheid
  • Mandela heal the wounds of the past
  • Amnesty legal forgiveness
  • Legacy of Apartheid
  • Continued economic inequality
  • Issues housing, running water,
  • Electricity, high unemployment
  • Segregation illegal but still a reality
  • Born Free Life After Apartheid Video

80
  • http//upfront.scholastic.com/issues/01_13_14
  • Born Free 1/13/2014
  • Born Free Video

81
(No Transcript)
82
A world map showing all the truth and
reconciliation commissions in Museum of Memory
and Human Rights, Santiago, Chile.
A truth commission or truth and reconciliation
commission is a commission tasked with
discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a
government (or, depending on the circumstances,
non-state actors also), in the hope of resolving
conflict left over from the past. established by
Mandela after apartheid, is popularly considered
a model of truth commissions.
83
In recent years, how has the South African
government tried create a better future for its
citizens?
  • Democracy
  • New Government/Constitution
  • antidiscrimination laws
  • protection of human rights
  • Try to improve healthcare, unemployment,
    education

84
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com