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Renewable Power Systems

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... First House Remote PV Grid ... From cells to modules From Cells to Arrays PV Module Performance PV Output deterioration BP 3160 Remember Wiring the System PV ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renewable Power Systems


1
Renewable Power Systems
  • Wind PV Basics
  • 15 October 2007
  • Dr Peter Mark Jansson PP PE

2
Aims of Todays Lecture
  • Solar resources basics
  • PV materials cell operation
  • PV technology
  • Wind resources

3
Solar declination
Period of cycle Date Solar Declination
Vernal equinox 21 March 0.0o
Summer solstice 21 June 23.4o
Autumnal equinox 21 September 0.0o
Winter solstice 21 December -23.4o
NOTE Tropic of Cancer is 23.45o (N Latitude),
Tropic of Capricorn is -23.45o (S Lat.)
4
Nice link Solar Declination
  • http//www.sciences.univ-nantes.fr/physique/perso/
    gtulloue/Sun/motion/Declination_a.html

5
Declination responsible for day-length
  • North of latitude 66.55o (the Arctic circle) the
    earth experiences continuous light at the summer
    solstice
  • South of latitude -66.55o (the Antarctic circle)
    the earth experiences continuous darkness at the
    summer solstice
  • North of latitude 66.55o (the Arctic circle) the
    earth experiences continuous darkness at the
    winter solstice
  • South of latitude -66.55o (the Antarctic circle)
    the earth experiences continuous light at the
    winter solstice

6
Rule of Thumb
  • Maximum annual solar collector performance
    (weather independent)
  • Achieved when collector is facing equator, with a
    tilt angle equal to latitude (north or south
    latitude)
  • Why?
  • In this geometry (the collector facing the
    equator with this tilt angle) the solar radiation
    it receives will be normal to its surface at the
    two equinoxes

7
Solar position in sky
  • Suns location can be determined at any time in
    any place by determining or calculating its
    altitude angle (?N) and its azimuth.
  • Azimuth is the offset degrees from a true
    equatorial direction (south in northern
    hemisphere), positive in morning (E of S) and
    negative after solar noon (W of S).

8
Azimuth-?s and Altitude-?N
9
Technology Aid
  • Sun Path Diagrams
  • Solar PathFinderTM
  • SunChart
  • Allows location of obstructions in the solar view
    and enables estimation of how much reduction in
    annual solar gain that such shading provides

10
Sun Path diagram
11
Maximize your Solar Window
12
Magnetic declination
  • When determining true south with a magnetic
    compass it is important to know that magnetic
    south and true (geometric) south are not the same
    in North America, (or anywhere else).
  • In our area, magnetic south is /- 12o west of
    true south

13
Source http//www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/geomag/jsp/st
ruts/calcDeclination
14
Orientation and Incoming Energy
15
Flux changes based on module orientation
  • Fixed Panel facing south at 40o N latitude
  • 40o tilt angle 2410 kWh/m2
  • 20o tilt angle 2352 kWh/m2 (2.4 loss)
  • 60o tilt angle 2208 kWh/m2 (8.4 loss)
  • Fixed panel facing SE or SW (azimuth)
  • 40o tilt angle 2216 kWh/m2 (8.0 loss)
  • 20o tilt angle 2231 kWh/m2 (7.4 loss)
  • 60o tilt angle 1997 kWh/m2 (17.1 loss)

16
Benefits of tracking
  • Single axis
  • 3,167 kWh/m2
  • 31.4 improvement over fixed at 40o N latitude
  • Two axis tracking
  • 3,305 kWh/m2
  • 37.1 improvement over fixed at 40o N latitude

17
Total Solar Flux
  • Direct Beam
  • Radiation that passes in a straight line through
    the atmosphere to the solar receiver (required by
    solar concentrator systems) 5.2 vs. 7.2 (72) in
    Boulder CO
  • Diffuse
  • Radiation that has been scattered by molecules
    and aerosols in the atmosphere
  • Reflected
  • Radiation bouncing off ground or other surfaces

18
Solar Resources - Direct Beam
19
Solar Resources Total Diffuse
20
Annual Solar Flux variation
  • 30 years of data from Boulder CO
  • 30-year Average 5.5 kWh/m2 /day
  • Minimum Year 5.0 kWh/m2 /day
  • 9.1 reduction
  • Maximum Year 5.8 kWh/m2 /day
  • 5.5 increase

21
Benefits of Real vs. Theoretical Data
  • Real data incorporates realistic climatic
    variance
  • Rain, cloud cover, etc.
  • Theoretical models require more assumptions
  • In U.S. 239 sites have collected data, 56 have
    long term solar measurements (NREL/NSRDB)
  • Globally hundreds of sites throughout the world
    with everything from solar to cloud cover data
    from which good solar estimates can be derived
    (WMO/WRDC)

22
Solar Flux Measurement devices
  • Pyranometer
  • Thermopile type (sensitive to all radiation)
  • Li-Cor silicon-cell (cutoff at 1100?m)
  • Shade ring (estimates direct-beam vs. diffuse)
  • Pyrheliometer
  • Only measures direct bean radiation

23
PV History
  • 1839 Edmund Becquerel, 19 year old French
    physicist discovers photovoltaic effect
  • 1876 Adams and Day first to study PV effect in
    solids (selenium, 1-2 efficient)
  • 1904 Albert Einstein published a theoretical
    explanation of photovoltaic effect which led to a
    Nobel Prize in 1923
  • 1958 first commercial application of PV on
    Vanguard satellite in the space race with Russia

24
Historic PV price/cost decline
  • 1958 1,000 / Watt
  • 1970s 100 / Watt
  • 1980s 10 / Watt
  • 1990s 3-6 / Watt
  • 2000-2007
  • 1.8-2.5/ Watt (cost)
  • 3.50-4.75/ Watt (price)

25
PV cost projection
  • 1.50 ? 1.00 / Watt
  • 2006 ? 2008
  • SOURCE US DOE / Industry Partners

26
PV Module Prices
Source P. Maycock, The World Photovoltaic Market
1975-1998 (Warrenton, VA PV Energy Systems,
Inc., August 1999), p. A-3.
27
PV technology efficiencies
  • 1970s/1980s ? 2003 (best lab efficiencies)
  • 3 ? 13 amorphous silicon
  • 6 ? 18 Cu In Di-Selenide
  • 14 ? 20 multi-crystalline Si
  • 15 ? 24 single crystal Si
  • 16 ? 37 multi-junction concentrators

28
PV Module Performance
  • Temperature dependence
  • Nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT)

Tc cell temp, Ta ambient temp (oC), S
insolation kW/m2
29
PV Output deterioration
  • Voc drops 0.37/oC
  • Isc increases by 0.05/oC
  • Max Power drops by 0.5/oC

30
PV Module Shipments
31
Wind PV Markets (94 -06)
Wind production PV production
32
Wind Market
33
PV Market
34
Amorphous Si
35
Amorphous Si
36
Cadmium Telluride
37
Multi-crystalline Si
38
Multi-crystalline Si
39
Single Crystal Si
40
Semi-Conductor Physics
  • PV technology uses semi-conductor materials to
    convert photon energy to electron energy
  • Many PV devices employ
  • Silicon (doped with Boron for p-type material or
    Phosphorus to make an n-type material)
  • Gallium (31) and Arsenide (33)
  • Cadmium (48) and Tellurium (52)

41
p-n junction
  • When junction first forms as the p and n type
    materials are brought together mobile electrons
    drift by diffusion across it and fill holes
    creating negative charge, and in turn leave an
    immobile positive charge behind. The region of
    interface becomes the depletion region which is
    characterized by a strong E-field that builds up
    and makes it difficult for more electrons to
    migrate across the p-n junction.

42
Depletion region
  • Typically 1 ?m across
  • Typically 1 V
  • E-field strength gt 10,000 V/cm
  • Common, conventional p-n junction diode
  • This region is the engine of the PV Cell
  • Source of the E-field and the electron-hole
    gatekeeper

43
Bandgap energy
  • That energy which an electron must acquire in
    order to free itself from the electrostatic
    binding force that ties it to its own nucleus so
    it is free to move into the conduction band and
    be acted on by the PV cells induced E-field
    structure.

44
Band Gap (eV) and cutoff Wavelength
  • PV Materials Band Gap Wavelength
  • Silicon 1.12 eV 1.11 ?m
  • Ga-As 1.42 eV 0.87 ?m
  • Cd-Te 1.5 eV 0.83 ?m
  • In-P 1.35 eV 0.92 ?m

45
Photons have more than enough or not enough
energy
  • Sources of PV cell losses (?15-24)
  • Silicon based PV technology max(?)49.6
  • Photons with long wavelengths but not enough
    energy to excite electrons across band-gap (20.2
    of incoming light)
  • Photons with shorter wavelengths and plenty
    (excess) of energy to excite an electron (30.2
    is wasted because of excess)
  • Electron-hole recombination within cell (15-26)

46
p-n junction
  • As long as PV cells are exposed to photons with
    energies exceeding the band gap energy
    hole-electron pairs will be created
  • Probability is still high they will recombine
    before the built-in electric field of the p-n
    junction is able to sweep electrons in one
    direction and holes in the other

47
Generic PV cell
Incoming Photons
Top Electrical Contacts
electrons ?
- - - - Accumulated Negative Charges - - - -
n-type
Holes
E-Field
Depletion Region


- - - - - -
- - -
Electrons
p-type
Accumulated Positive Charges
Bottom Electrical Contact
I ?
48
PV Module Performance
  • Standard Test Conditions
  • 1 sun 1000 watts/m2 1kW/m2
  • 25 oC Cell Temp
  • AM 1.5 (Air Mass Ratio)
  • I-V curves
  • Key Statistics VOC, ISC, Rated Power, V and I at
    Max Power

49
PV specifications (I-V curves)
  • I-V curves look very much like diode curve
  • With positive offset for a current source when in
    the presence of light

50
From cells to modules
  • Primary unit in a PV system is the module
  • Nominal series and parallel strings of PV cells
    to create a hermetically sealed, and durable
    module assembly
  • DC (typical 12V, 24V, 48V arrangements)
  • AC modules are available

51
From Cells to Arrays
52
PV Module Performance
  • Temperature dependence
  • Nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT)

Tc cell temp, Ta ambient temp (oC), S
insolation kW/m2
53
PV Output deterioration
  • Voc drops 0.37/oC
  • Isc increases by 0.05/oC
  • Max Power drops by 0.5/oC

54
BP 3160
  • Rated Power 160 W
  • Nominal Voltage 24V
  • V at Pmax 35.1
  • I at Pmax 4.55
  • Min Warranty 152 W
  • NOTE I-V Curves

55
Remember
  • PV modules stack like batteries
  • In series Voltage adds,
  • constant current through each module
  • In parallel Current adds,
  • voltage of series strings must be constant
  • Build Series strings first, then see how many
    strings you can connect to inverter

56
Wiring the System
57
PV system types
  • Grid Interactive and BIPV
  • Stand Alone
  • Pumping
  • Cathodic Protection
  • Battery Back-Up Stand Alone
  • Medical / Refrigeration
  • Communications
  • Rural Electrification
  • Lighting

58
Grid Interactive
59
Grid-interactive roof mounted
60
Building Integrated PV
61
Stand-Alone First House
62
Remote
63
PV Grid Active Rebates
  • 2007 NJCEP Rebates
  • PV Systems lt 10 kW 3.50 - 4.10/watt
  • Maximum incentive (60 of system costs)
  • Systems gt 10kW
  • gt 10 to 40 kW 2.50 - 3.15/watt
  • gt 40 to 100 kW 2.25 - 2.50/watt
  • gt 100 to 500 kW 2.00 - 2.30/watt
  • gt 500 up to 700 kW 1.75 - 1.85/watt

64
NJ Wind Resources
65
Wind Turbines
66
Wind Turbines
  • A wind turbine obtains its power input by
    converting the force of the wind into a torque
    acting on the rotor blades.
  • The amount of energy which the wind transfers to
    the rotor depends on the density of the air, the
    rotor area, and the wind speed.

67
Wind Turbines
  • A wind turbine will deflect the wind before it
    even reaches the rotor plane which means that all
    of the energy in the wind cannot be captured
    using a wind turbine.

68
Wind Power and Wind Speed (v)
  • Power/Energy is proportional to v3
  • Why?

69
Wind Turbine Energy
  • The annual energy delivered by a wind turbine can
    be estimated by using the equation

The cost of electricity will vary with wind
speed. The higher the average wind speed, the
greater the amount of energy, and the lower the
cost of electricity
70
Wind Power Classifications
Wind Power Class Average Speed m/s Average Speed mph 10-m Power Density W/m2 50-m Power Density W/m2
1 0-4.4 0-9.8 0-100 0-200
2 4.4-5.1 9.8-11.4 100-150 200-300
3 5.1-5.6 11.4-12.5 150-200 300-400
4 5.6-6.0 12.5-13.4 200-250 400-500
5 6.0-6.4 13.4-14.3 250-300 500-600
6 6.4-7.0 14.3-15.7 300-400 600-800
7 7.0-9.5 15.7-21.5 400-1000 800-2000
71
Delaware Bay / Coastal Wind Speeds
  • Areas along shore or in mountains may be ideal
    for wind power
  • Wind speeds as low as
  • 4.5 -5.5 m/s
  • for res farms/comm
  • gt6.0 m/s can be used
  • for power farms
  • At 6.5 m/s, electricity can be below
  • 0.07/kWh

True Wind Solutions
72
2007 NJCEP Rebates
  • Wind and Sustainable Biomass Systems
  • Systems lt 10 kW 5.00/watt
  • Maximum incentive (60 of system costs)
  • Systems gt 10kW
  • First 10 kW 3.00/watt
  • gt 10 to 100 kW 2.00/watt
  • gt 100 to 500 kW 1.50/watt
  • gt 500 kW, up to 1000 kW 0.15/watt
  • Maximum incentive (30 of system costs)

73
10 kW Bergey Turbine in NJ
  • Class 3 winds at ground 5.5 m/s, 24 m (80ft)
    6.3 m/s aloft
  • Power generated is 18,000 kWh/year
  • Turbine 24,750
  • Tower 6,800
  • Install/Misc 5,500
  • NJCEP Rebate (60) 22,230
  • Net Cost 14,820
  • 15 year electric cost 5.5/kWh
  • Simple Payback 7.5 years

74
New Jersey Anemometer Loan Program
  • USDOE, NJBPU/NJCEP, Rutgers and Rowan University
    have partnered to offer free wind energy analysis
    to farms seriously considering wind
  • 1 year onsite wind measurement
  • Tower and anemometer installed at no charge
  • Contacts
  • NJCEP Alma Rivera 1.973-648-7405 or email
    alma.rivera_at_bpu.state.nj.us
  • Rowan Dr. Peter Mark Jansson 1.856.256.5373 or
    email jansson_at_rowan.edu
  • Rutgers Dr. Michael R. Muller 1.732.445.3655 or
    email muller_at_caes.rutgers.edu

75
New Jersey Anemometer Loan Program
  • Regional Data from the South Available OnLine
  • http//www.rowan.edu/cleanenergy

76
New Jersey Wind Power - ACUA
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