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Title: Christian%20Evidences%20APLA%20Day%202

Christian Evidences APLA Day 2
  • The Bible

Quiz 1
  • 1. Give three examples of claims Jesus made which
    were backed up by miracles he worked at the
    same time.
  • 2. Name at least one non-Christian writer who
    mentioned Jesus in the first or very early second
    century. Ex Cr for more than one.
  • 3. Describe the teleological argument for the
    existence of God.
  • 5. According to the majority of biblical
    scholars, when was the book of Daniel written?
    When was it actually written?
  • 6. List two Messianic prophecies chapter and
    verse and the basic thing or things prophesied.

Course Outline
  • Existence of God
  • Jesus
  • Messianic Prophecies
  • Claims of Jesus
  • Miracles of Jesus
  • Resurrection of Jesus
  • The Bible
  • Inspiration and Inerrancy
  • How We Got the Bible, Canon
  • Contradictions?
  • History, Archaeology and the Bible
  • Science and Christianity
  • Christian and Other World Views
  • Defense of Christian Theology
  • Problem of Pain, Suffering and Evil
  • The Problem of Hell
  • Free Will/Predestination

Inspiration and Inerrancy
  • Inspiration Is the Bible inspired by God?
  • Inerrancy Is the Bible inerrant?

Inspiration Is the Bible Inspired by God?
  • The entire Bible, although authored by men, is
    divinely and authoritatively the revelation of
  • 2 Peter 119-21, 2 Tim 316, 1 Thess 213, 2
    Peter 315-16
  • Is there such a thing as inspired opinion? (1 Cor
    712 I, not the Lord)
  • What about John 931?

Is the Bible Inerrant?
  • Inerrant The Bible contains no errors
    whatsoever. This is the standard fundamentalist
  • Translation issues. Translations are not
  • Copyist errors. It is a fact that Hebrew and
    Greek texts have errors.

Is the Bible Inerrant? Are There Mistakes in the
Autographs (Original Manuscripts)?
  • Does the sun move across the sky?
  • Are the gospels or Bible in general exact
  • Is Genesis 1 literal?
  • Did Jesus clear the temple twice?
  • Are there chronological errors in the NT?
  • What would it mean if there was a mistake in
    the Bible?
  • What is your definition of error?
  • Was Moses literally in the desert exactly 40
  • Be cautious about imposing a modernist/Western
    concept of inerrancy.
  • More on this later.

How We Got The Bible Is the Bible We Read
Inspired by God?
  • John Oakes, PhD

Judas Another Gospel?
Is it Genuine?
  • Discovered in a subterranean chamber in Egypt in
  • Carbon-14 dating AD 220-340.
  • A Coptic manuscript on papyrus.
  • Quoted by Iranaeus Against Heresies AD180.
  • Probably originated AD 150-170.
  • Bottom line, it is genuine!

National Geographic Article Some of these
alternative versions (Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of
Phillip, Gospel of Judas) may have circulated
more widely than the familiar four Gospels A
long-buried side of Christianity is
re-emerging In fact, it is unclear whether the
authors of any of the gospelseven the familiar
fouractually witnessed the events they
Is the Gospel of Judas a Gospel?
  • 3200 words longabout three chapters in length.
  • No miracles, no healings, no ministry to the
  • Not a biography of Jesus.
  • No passion account!
  • Not a gospel.

The Message and Content of the Gospel of
Judas Judas Did Jesus a favor when he
betrayed him!!!
The Theme of the Gospel of Judas The secret
account of the revelation that Jesus spoke in
conversation with Judas Iscariot.
Judas was Jesus closest apostle. Jesus
revealed secret, deeper knowledge of his purpose
and ministry to Judas. This Gospel reveals this
deeper knowledge (gnosis).
Content (cont.)
  • A bizarre Gnostic cosmology put into the mouth of
  • Come, that I may teach you about secrets no
    person has seen (GJ, p. 47)
  • 12 Aeons (gods?) (see on Gnosticism below).
  • 72 heavens and 72 luminaries six for each of the
  • 360 firmaments and 360 luminaries five for each
    of the heavens.
  • Characters such as Nebro, Yaldabaoth, Saklas,
    Galila, Yobel, Adonaios, Seth. The first is
    Seth, who is called Christ (GJ p. 52) Jesus is
    Seth, one of the five rulers of the underworld.

Content (cont.)
  • The key like comes near the end For you will
    sacrifice the man that clothes me. (GJ p. 56)
    Believe it or not, this makes sense (to a

What about the other gospels?
  • There were several Gnostic gospels, such as the
    Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Phillip, and the
    gospel of Judas.
  • These books were written AD 150-250 and
    definitely were not written by the apostles.
  • Even the Gnostics such as Marcion did not include
    them in their canon of scripture, because
    everyone knew they did not have apostolic

From The Gospel of Thomas
  • (supposedly quoting Peter) Let Mary go away from
    us, because women are not worthy of life.
  • Then Jesus allegedly tells Peter that he will
    make Mary male so that she may enter the kingdom
    of heaven.
  • Not much of a battle cry for womens rights, and
    yet the Gospel of Thomas is one of the primary
    sources for Dan Browns feminist agenda.

So, who cares? You should. National Geographic
Marcionites, Ebionites, Gnostics, Orthodox
Christians are all equally valid views of Jesus
which fought it out. What we know as
Christianity is the one that won out (DaVinci
Code). The Gospel of Judas is just another of
many equally valid pictures of the true Jesus.
In fact, it is unclear whether the authors of
any of the gospelseven the familiar
fouractually witnessed the events they
described. This is a lie!!!
Gnostic writings Even the Gnostics did not
take them as historical facts. They interpreted
their stories/myths as allegories with deep,
hidden meaning. Even Marcion, in his canon did
not list the Gospel of Thomas or any other of the
Gnostic writings! No apostolic
authority. Matthew, Mark, Luke, John and
Acts Clearly to be taken as literal history with
obvious literal meaning. Jesus really walked on
water. We know when and where he was born, where
he lived, who he touched and healed. He died a
horrible, physical, bloody death. This is
unmistakably literal.
Why only four gospels?
  • If you accept the others, you have to throw out
    the Old Testament.
  • Dates they were written (as opposed to the
    Gnostic writings).
  • Apostolic authority.
  • Manuscript evidence.
  • Church Father quotes.
  • Evolution of the church canon.

Summary The Gospel of Judas is not a gospel at
all. It is a non-Christian, Gnostic writing from
some time after AD 150 with absolutely no
apostolic authority and virtually no historical
content. It is of great interests to historians
of religion in the Eastern Mediterranean in the
2nd century AD, but it has nothing new to tell us
about Jesus or about true Christianity.
Excerpt from DVC
  • Aha! Teabing burst in with enthusiasm. The
    fundamental irony of Christianity! The Bible, as
    we know it today, was collated by the pagan Roman
    emperor Constantine the Great. (page 251, DVC)

Dates of Composition
  • Matthew 60s AD
  • Mark AD 50s or 60s
  • Luke AD 63 (based on details not included in
  • John AD 70-90
  • Alternative, non-canonical gospels 2nd and 3rd
    centuries AD
  • Gospel of Thomas AD130-150
  • Gospel of Judas AD 150-170

Apostolic Authority Justin Martyr AD 150 four
memoirs of the apostles. Irenaeus AD 190
MMLJ are the four pillars of the Gospel. The
New Testament canon was chosen as those books
which, by consensus, had apostolic
authority. The four gospels are the only ones
even the heretics ever saw as being truly
Manuscript evidence for the canonical gospels
The Rylands Fragment John 1831-33, 37 AD 125
Church Father Quotes
  • Ignatius d. AD 115 Quotes from Matthew, John and
  • Polycarp, writing to the Philippians in AD 120
    quotes from Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, 1,2
    Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians,
    1,2 Thessalonians, 1,2 Timothy, Hebrews, 1 Peter,
    and 1,3 John
  • Clement of Rome AD 95 or 96 quotes from ten of
    the twenty-seven New Testament books.
  • Nearly the entire New Testament can be
    reconstructed from quotes of the church fathers
    in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
  • None of these ever quoted from a Gnostic gospel,

Development of the New Testament Canon
  • Four gospels circulating and recognized as
    apostolic by AD 100 or even by AD 90.
  • A group of letters of Paul circulating together
    and recognized as apostolic by AD 100
  • A still fluid, but developing complete list of
    canonical books by AD 150. (some doubt about
    Hebrews, 2,3 John, Revelation, 2 Peter, Epistle
    of Barnabus, Didache).
  • By AD 200, the New Testament as we know it was
    canonized by acclamation of the church. (The
    Muratorian Fragment, AD 175)

Non-Canonical Books
  • Some books not in our NT were accepted for
    reading in the church.
  • Didache
  • Gospel of Barnabas
  • Clement of Rome
  • Why Rejected?
  • Not apostolic
  • Lower quality

  • Codex Sinaiticus (350 AD)
  • Codex Vaticanus (350 AD)
  • Alexandrian Codex (350 AD)
  • Codex Bezae (300 AD)
  • Chester Beaty Papyrus (200 AD)
  • John Rylands Papyrus (125 AD)

Codex Sinaiticus AD 350 British Museum
Codex Bezae AD 350
Textual Evidence for Ancient Manuscripts
What about the tens of thousands of manuscript
errors in the New Testament?
Blow-up of text from Codex Sinaiticus Showing
uncial manuscript type

New Testament Manuscript Errors
  • There are over 100,000 manuscript errors.
  • Virtually all are minor spelling errors, word
    order changes, etc.
  • There are only four significant controversial
    passages in the New Testament
  • John 753-811
  • Acts 837 and 1 John 57
  • Mark 169-20

  • The New Testament canon was selected by consensus
    of the church in the second century as those
    books with apostolic authority.
  • The evidence is conclusive that the Greek New
    Testament we have is virtually identical to the
    original writings of the inspired writers.

The Text and Canon of the Old Testament
  • The Cairo Codex The former and latter prophets
    AD 895
  • The Leningrad Codex Oldest Hebrew manuscript of
    the whole Old Testament AD 1008
  • The Masoretes and the Masoretic Text. These guys
    were fanatics!
  • All this changed in 1949 with an Arab child in
    the hills east of Jerusalem.

The Talmud. A synagogue roll must be written on
the skins of clean animals, prepared for the
particular use of the synagogue by a Jew. These
must be fastened together with strings taken from
clean animals. Every skin must contain a certain
number of columns, equal throughout the entire
codex. The length of each column must not extend
over less than forty-eight, or more than sixty
lines and the breadth must consist of thirty
letters. The whole copy must be first lined and
if three words be written in it without a line,
it is worthless. The ink should be black,
neither red, green, nor any other color and be
prepared according to a definite recipe. An
authentic copy must be the exemplar, from which
the transcriber ought not in the least deviate.
No word or letter, not even a yod (a vowel mark),
must be written from memory, the scribe not
having looked at the codex before him. Between
every consonant the space of a hair or thread
must intervene between every word, the breadth
of a narrow consonant between every new section,
the breadth of nine consonants between every
book, three lines. The fifth book of Moses must
terminate exactly with a line, but the rest need
not do so. Besides this, the copyist must sit in
full Jewish dress, wash his whole body, not begin
to write the name of God with a pen newly dipped
in ink, and should a king address him while
writing that name he must take no notice of him.
The rolls in which these regulations are not
observed are condemned to be buried in the ground
or burned or they are banished to the schools,
to be used as reading books.
Qumran Cave 4
Column I The Great Qumran Isaiah Scroll
The Effect of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Last Old Testament Book Written Autograph Dead Sea Scrolls Written Oldest Old Testament Manuscript Before Dead Sea Scrolls
Other Versions
  • The Septuagint 250-170 BC
  • The Samaritan Pentateuch 400 BC
  • Jewish quotations from the OT in the Talmud and
    other writings.

  • Copying Errors in the OT Numbers

Old Testament Apocrypha
  • Composed in the 2nd and 3rd century BC
  • Attached to (included in?) Septuagint
  • Never quoted in NT (Jude 14 and exception?)
  • By 3rd Century these books were quoted
    extensively and treated as scripture by church
  • Included in Jeromes Vulgate
  • Rejected by Jews by 3rd century. NOT in Jewish
  • Included in KJV.
  • Excluded by Protestant Bibles in 17th century

Old Testament Apocrypha
  • Tobit
  • Judith
  • Additions to Esther
  • First Maccabees
  • Second Maccabees
  • Wisdom
  • Sirach (Ecclesiasticus)
  • Baruch
  • Additions to Daniel
  • The Prayer of Azariah and The Song of the Three
  • Susanna
  • Bel and the Dragon

Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Susanna, Bel
and the Dragon
  • Jewish Fables/Parables
  • Tobit Using the smoke from the liver and heart
    of a fish to drive off a demon.
  • Judith Nebuchadnezzar called a king of the
  • Additions to Esther A Greek interpolation. A
    Targum A Jewish commentary. Never in Hebrew.
  • Susanna Daniel as a young boy. And from that
    day onward, Daniel was greatly esteemed by the
  • Bel and the Dragon Daniel convinces Cyrus that
    Bel and the Dragon are mere idols

1st and 2nd Maccabees
  • 1st Maccabees of very high quality. Rejected
    because it is favorable of the Romans?
  • 2nd Maccabees of much lower quality.
  • Some very inspiring stories. (2 Maccabees 7)
  • Many historical errors.
  • 2 Maccabees 617 Without further ado, we must
    go on with our story.
  • I will bring my own story to an end here too. If
    it is well written, and to the point, that is
    what I wanted if it is poorly done and mediocre,
    that is the best I could do (2 Maccabees

Wisdom and Sirach (Ecclesiasticus)
  • Very similar in form and substance to Proverbs.
  • Wisdom is a Pseudepigrapha (falsely ascribed
    book) Solomon? Written about 100 BC
  • Some very good advice.
  • Envy and anger shorten ones life, Worry brings
    on premature age. One who is cheerful and gay
    while at table benefits from his food (Sirach
  • If there are many with you at table, be not the
    first one to reach out your hand. Sirach 3118)

Wisdom and Sirach Include False Doctrine and
Unbiblical Advice
  • Tell nothing to a friend or foe If you have a
    fault, reveal it not (Sirach 197)
  • For kindness to a father will not be forgotten,
    it will serve as a sin offeringit will take
    lasting root. In time of tribulation it will be
    recalled to your advantage, like warmth upon
    frost it will melt away your sins (Sirach
  • Water quenches a flaming fire and alms atone for
    sins. (Sirach 329)
  • Worst of all wounds is that of the heart, worst
    of all evils is that of a woman.... There is
    scarce any evil like that in a woman may she
    fall to the lot of the sinner (Sirach 2512,18).

Summary of the Evidence for the Old Testament
  • Our Hebrew Bible is very similar to the original
    writings. No significant biblical doctrine is in
  • The Old Testament books were chosen by consensus
    of Jewish teachers somewhere between 400 and 200
  • The entire Bible we have in our hands is
    essentially what God had written by the inspired

Bible Contradictions
  • Claims that the doctrine which is taught in two
    different passages is contradictory.
  • Identical events described by two different
    authors have details of fact that appear to
  • Numbers of objects, people or years in two
    different passages do not agree.

Bible Contradictions
  • Claim The Bible is full of contradictions.
  • Genesis 717 vs Genesis 83 Forty days or
    150 days?
  • Genesis 3736 vs Genesis 391 Was Joseph
    sold to the Midianites or to the Ishmaelites?
  • Proverbs 264 vs Proverbs 265 Do we answer a
  • Mathew 275 vs Acts 118 How did Judas die?
  • John 1917 vs Mark 1521-23 Who carried the
  • More serious Exodus 204-5 vs Ezek 1819-20

Bible Contradictions (cont.)
  • David took seven hundred (2 Samuel 84) or seven
    thousand (1Chronicles 184) horsemen from
    Hadadezer. Which is correct?
  • Exodus 208, Remember the Sabbath day by
    keeping it holy contradicts Isaiah 113 Your
    Sabbaths and convocationsI cannot bear

More Difficult Supposed Contradictions
  • Ephesians 28-9 vs James 220-24. Are we saved
    by works?
  • Exodus 204-5 vs Ezek 1819-20
  • All-time most difficult Matt 1010, Luke 98
    vs Mk 68 Were they to carry a staff?

Bible Errors
  • Matthew 223 Where is the prophecy that Jesus
    will be called a Nazarene? Answer Isaiah
    111-2, Zechariah 69-15
  • Two different and contradictory Genealogies in
    Matthew and Luke. Answer Matthew is genealogy
    of Joseph and Luke is genealogy of Mary (Joseph
    the son in law of Heli)
  • Matthew 123 The virgin will be with child is
    a misquote of the Bible.
  • Matthew 215 Mistakenly makes Hosea 111 a
    prophecy (no, it is a fulfilled foreshadow, not a
    fulfilled historical prophecy)

Bible Errors? (cont.)
  • Is David mistaken? Psalm 514 Against you only
    have I sinned. Psalm 515 Original sin?
  • Psalm 10312 How far is it from the East to the
  • Do Bible writers misquote the OT? Is it an
    error if they quote from an unispired
    translation (the Septuagint)? Are they
    paraphrasing? Is that a mistake?
  • Bottom line, Inspiration is very solid, but
    inerrancy is tricky, depending on how you define

Biblical Inspiration/Inerrancy Advanced Topics
  • Source Criticism.
  • New Testament Source Criticism Q
  • Old Testament Source Criticism The Documentary
  • JEPD (Jahwist, Elohist, Priestly, Deuteronomist)
  • DeuteroIsaiah Isaiah 40-66
  • Two authors (or more) for Genesis? Moses the
  • Form Criticism.
  • Redaction Criticism Did Copyists edit the NT in
    small ways, on purpose, and what are the

More Thoughts on Biblical Inspiration
  • Unity of theme, doctrine and theology
  • The Bible works
  • Changed Lives. John 717
  • The Bible is the best book in the world on
  • Psychology
  • Teaching Look at Jesus parables
  • Literature (Psalms)
  • Wisdom (Proverbs)
  • Philosophy
  • Character, Ethics
  • Child Raising
  • Finances
  • Government Q Other????