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Title: Heart%20of%20Darkness%20by%20Joseph%20Conrad


1
Heart of Darknessby Joseph Conrad
  • Imperialism
  • Extending a countrys or nations authority
    through territorial gain
  • Double Standards of Imperialism
  • Enslavement, torture, and cruelty seen as
    necessary evils
  • Justification through helping civilize the
    uncivilized
  • Madness due to Imperialism
  • Excuses for treatment of others and decisions
  • Africa is personified and blamed for decisions of
    maliciousness
  • Absurdity of Evil
  • Hypocrisy and moral confusion of situations
  • Similar treatment of the serious and ordinary
  • Meaninglessness of stupidity and life and death
    issues
  • The River
  • Slow flow, difficult trip upriver toward goal
    of civilizing
  • Fast flow, downriver trip back to civilization
  • Darkness
  • Part of the title!!
  • Even in light, the inability for humans to SEE
    people

2
West Africa
  • Culture History

3
Cultural Influences
  • Parts of the U.S., Latin America, and the
    Caribbean show African influence.
  • Islamic influence in Northern Africa was brought
    to Western African through trade.
  • North African sources of salt and goods
  • West African sources of gold, ivory, and other
    precious resources
  • A variety of ethnic groups still call West Africa
    home, however, ancient Africa was even more
    diverse.

4
Mighty Empires
  • Ghana (300-1200)
  • Empire named after war chief Ghana
  • Land of gold dispite no gold production
  • Made money on taxing trade
  • Weakened by Islamic invasions
  • Spread of Islam (800-1900)
  • Peaceful trade and violent conquest
  • Muslim trades were first converters
  • Islamic reformers captured Ghana
  • Holy wars began against non-Muslim rulers

5
Mighty Empires cont.
  • Rise of Mali (1235-1500)
  • First great Muslim empire
  • Sundiata defeated non-Muslim king
  • Grandnephew brought Mali to its height
  • Mecca pilgrimage of lavish gold gifts dropped
    price of gold throughout Egypt
  • Forest Kingdoms (1170-1900)
  • Began to prosper during Malis height
  • Yoruba deeply religious people
  • Government of ruling families
  • Divine leaders
  • Edo
  • Government and trade similar to Yoruba
  • World famous for quality royal sculptures
  • 1470s first Portuguese trading ships sailed into
    port
  • Opened up contact
  • Atlantic Slave Trade

6
Atlantic Slave Trade(1518-1870)
  • West African cities were the center of trade.
  • Small scale
  • Prisoners of war and minor criminals
  • Over 300 years of slave trade
  • Between 10-15 Million African slaves transported
  • Began with Muslims and continued with Portuguese
    then other Europeans
  • Demand increased for slaves in the Americas and
    Caribbean for mine and plantation work
  • Guns were used as a trade for slaves
  • Despite violent disruptions, much of cultural
    tradition was passed down.

7
Ashanti Empire (1695-1901)
  • Small farmers who banded to make a strong union
  • Involved in slave trade
  • 1870s began war with British that lead to
    colonization
  • Scramble for Africa
  • 90 colonized by European powers
  • Imposed new government, language, faiths

8
Classes and Societal Divisions
  • Rulers
  • Kings, nobles, chiefs
  • Controlled the government and wealth
  • Wealth in forms of goods and services
  • Traders paid taxes
  • Fisherman gave portion of catch
  • Spiritual leaders
  • People receive protection of kings army
  • Priests
  • Traditional religions
  • Presided over shrines and sacrifices
  • Islamic teachers
  • Instructed from the Koran
  • Diviner
  • Helped with personal problems and recommended
    solutions
  • Understood messages from the spiritual world
  • Healers with herbal medicines

9
Classes and Societal Divisions cont.
  • Craftspeople
  • Professionals musicians, singers, poets,
    dancers, storytellers, potters, woodworkers,
    hairdressers, tattoo artists, etc.
  • Worked directly for king in most cases
  • Freeborn People
  • Ordinary people who werent slaves land owners,
    rich merchants, farmers, fisherman, etc.
  • In later days, the helped to run the government
  • Still, everyone owed to the rulers product or
    service
  • Slaves
  • War captives and law breakers
  • Worked similar jobs as freeborn in most cases
  • Used as professional soldiers
  • Had fewer rights
  • Some could earn freedom through work, loyalty of
    service, or marriage
  • Seldom some became chiefs and kings

10
Women
  • Gave birth to all men chiefs included
  • High status particularly for mothers
  • Husbands and wives work as economic equals in
    most cases
  • Typically did not hold political office
  • Some were warrior-queens
  • Queen Mother mother or widow of former king
  • Gave consent of future king
  • Attended political meets as a king advisor
  • Acted as judges
  • Some rode into battle

11
Arts and Culture
  • Literature
  • Rich in oral tradition
  • Epics, proverbs, poems, trickster tales, stories,
    origin myths, etc.
  • Basic religious beliefs
  • One god who withdrew after creation
  • Lesser gods involved in human affairs
  • Faith in ancestral spirits influence
  • Witches and sorcerers ability to cause misfortune
  • Diviners ability to solve problems in both
    worlds
  • Music, Dance, and Art
  • Social activity games, ceremonies, festivals,
    and work
  • Jewelry, pottery, sculpture
  • Attract spirits
  • Influence on modern art
  • Expressionistic influence Picasso

12
(No Transcript)
13
Readings
  • How the world was created from a drop of milk
    pg 624 6, 7, 8
  • Heart of Darkness
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