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Criminal Justice System Components: Locating Probation and Parole


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Title: Criminal Justice System Components: Locating Probation and Parole

Chapter 1
  • Criminal Justice System Components Locating
    Probation and Parole

Criminal Justice System Components Locating
Probation and Parole
  • The criminal justice system consists of law
    enforcement, the courts, and corrections
  • Personnel who work in probation, parole, and
    community corrections are heavily involved in
    offender supervision and operate programs
    designed to rehabilitate or reintegrate
  • These personnel are also expected to supervise
    and assist clients with the purpose of making
    them law-abiding citizens

Criminal Justice System Components Locating
Probation and Parole
  • Probation officers and parole officers often fail
    to achieve these personal and departmental
  • The reasons their clients fail, however, are
    often beyond their direct control

An Overview of the Criminal Justice System
  • Entry into the criminal justice system begins
    with the commission of a crime, followed by an
  • If there are successful prosecutions of
    defendants by prosecutors, they will be found
    guilty and sentenced by judges

An Overview of the Criminal Justice System
  • Probation is a sentencing option imposed by
    judges in lieu of incarceration
  • Probationers are allowed to remain free in the
    community but must adhere to certain probation
    conditions for a period of time
  • Parole, on the other hand, is an early release
    from prison or jail permitting convicted
    offenders back into the community again with
    restrictions and conditions

An Overview of the Criminal Justice System
  • Regardless of whether an offender is on probation
    or parole, there are certain program conditions
    that must be obeyedIf not, probation or parole
    can be revoked
  • A parole revocation means that parolees may be
    returned to prison for some or all of the
    remainder of their original sentences
  • A probation revocation may also mean
    incarceration, or it can mean a more intensive
    form of supervision by probation officials

Probation Officers and Parole Officers (POs)
  • Enforcing the conditions of probation and parole
    are probation and parole officers, often referred
    to as POs
  • Offenders are required to report to their PO
    regularly and to comply with rules and
  • POs often collaborate with community agencies
    that provide special services for offenders

Probation Officers and Parole Officers (POs)
  • Depending on the jurisdiction, POs may be
    assigned to supervise
  • (1) adult probationers and/or parolees
  • (2) juvenile probationers and/or parolees and/or
  • (3) offenders with special needs
  • POs therefore perform many duties, but their
    primary responsibility is the management and
    supervision of nonincarcerated offenders

All Probationers and Parolees Are a Part of
  • Corrections is the aggregate of programs,
    services, facilities, and organizations
    responsible for the management of people who have
    been accused or convicted of criminal offenses
  • Some offenders may receive treatment for their
    needs or problems in a jail or prison

All Probationers and Parolees Are a Part of
  • More often than not, inmates are influenced by
    those they associate with while they are confined
  • These association may not be positive or
  • The criminogenic environment of prisons and jails
    and social interactions with other inmates often
    leads to and explains probation and parole
    program failures

Types of Offenses
  • Felonies
  • Major crime that carries a potentially severe
    penalty of one or more years in prison or jail
    and fines
  • Usually statutory penalties are associated with
    all felonies and include both fines and/or
    incarceration in a state or federal prison
  • Includes arson, murder, rape, burglary, robbery,
    vehicular theft, and aggravated assault

Types of Offenses
  • Misdemeanors
  • Minor or petty offenses that carries less severe
    penalties compared with felonies
  • May result in fines and/or incarceration for less
    than one year
  • A misdemeanant is someone who commits a
  • Includes making false financial statements,
    prostitution, shoplifting to name a few

Types of Offenses
  • Violent crimes
  • Characterized by extreme physical force,
    including homicide, forcible rape, child sexual
    abuse, assault and battery by means of a
    dangerous weapon, robbery, and arson
  • Also referred to as crimes of violence or crimes
    against the person
  • Persons are directly involved as victims and
    affected emotionally and physically as a result
    of the crime

Types of Offenses
  • Property crimes
  • Nonviolent offenses such as burglary, vehicular
    theft, embezzlement, fraud, forgery, and larceny
  • Although persons are victimized by such offenses,
    their lives and physical well being are not
    directly jeopardized by these offenses

Classifying Offenders
  • Prisons and Jails
  • Officials use various classification schemes to
    determine the level of institutional custody for
  • Who should be isolated (Violent)
  • Mentally Ill
  • Suicide Risks
  • Escape Risks
  • Predators

Classifying Offenders
  • Probation and Parole
  • POs have a vested interest in classifying
    offenders for the appropriate level of community
  • Type of Criminal History
  • Mental or Physical Impairment
  • Personality Disorders
  • Alcohol or Drug Dependency
  • Treatment Needs

Traditional Offender Categorizations
  • First offenders
  • Those offenders who commit one or more crimes but
    have no previous history of criminal behavior
  • No useful generalizations can be made other than
    they have no prior history of offending

Traditional Offender Categorizations
  • Recidivists
  • Offenders who continue to commit new Crimes
  • Even after they have been apprehended,
    prosecuted, and incarcerated, these are the many
    offenders who continue their criminal activity
    when released

Traditional Offender Categorizations
  • Career criminals
  • Offenders who earn their living from the crimes
    they commit
  • Career Criminal have reached a stage where they
    view crime as an occupation
  • Their criminal activity is a craft that requires
    expertise and special training
  • Many, however, are more bothersome than
    dangerous, thieves, burglars, vandals

Criminal Justice System Components
  • Law enforcement
  • Arresttaking a suspect into custody
  • Bookingadministrative procedure to gather
    information on offenders for law enforcement
  • Bailsurety to procure the release of those under
    arrest to ensure they will appear to face charges
    in criminal court

Criminal Justice System Components
  • Prosecutorial decision making
  • Prosecutionsexamination of case by prosecutor to
    determine if enough evidence exists for
  • Screening and prioritizing casesdetermining
    which cases are most worthy of prosecution as
    well as which have the highest probability for
  • Plea bargainingpreconviction agreement where the
    defendant pleads guilty in exchange for leniency
    or concessions

Criminal Justice System Components
  • Courts and judges
  • Judicial workloadscourt calendars are full of
    cases in many jurisdictions
  • Case processingdefendants are entitled to a jury
    trial as a matter of right in criminal
    proceedings, most convictions are obtained
    through a plea
  • Sentencingthose defendants found guilty are
    sentenced by a judge, who has several options,
    including incarceration or probation

Criminal Justice System Components
  • Corrections
  • Jail and prison overcrowdingfrequently there is
    little room in prisons and jails
  • By 2006, 33 states were under court order to
    reduce their prison inmate populations

Criminal Justice System Components
  • Corrections
  • Availability of community servicesMost citizens
    equate criminal punishment with incarceration,
    despite the fact that a majority of offenders are
    never incarcerated
  • Depending on availability of community services,
    these offenders are allowed to remain in their
    communities doing community service, paying
    restitution, and attending educational or
    vocational training