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World War II

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World War II * 20 years after Wilson's war to end all wars Americans were now embroiled in another world conflict. Sensitive to skepticism FDR asked Americans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II


1
World War II
2
Study Guide Identifications
  • Roots of War
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere
  • Adolph Hitler
  • Pearl Harbor
  • American Propaganda
  • Manhattan Project

3
Study Guide Questions
  • What were the causes of WWII?
  • Why were most Americans reluctant to get involved
    in WWII?
  • What were some of the foreign policy of the
    United States?

4
WWII
  • Began two decades before it started
  • Growing resentments from WWI
  • R. Senator Gerald Nye committee 1934
  • Investigate U.S. involvement in WWI
  • Greed of Big Business/Imperialist intervention
  • Worldwide depression
  • International political instability
  • Rise of ultra-nationalist movements
  • Japan, Italy, Germany economic collapse
  • Promise of recovery military buildup and
    territorial expansion

5
WWI Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the
    war
  • Germany had to pay 6,600 million (called
    Reparations) for the damage done during the war.
  • Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an
    air force.   She could have a navy of only six
    battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.  
    In addition, Germany was not allowed to place any
    troops in the Rhineland, the strip of land, 50
    miles wide, next to France.
  • Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe
    Germanys colonies were given to Britain and
    France.

6
Roots of War
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Creation of Small vulnerable nations
  • Italy and Japan empire building
  • 1930s economic crisis and political instability
    fueled the rise of right wing dictatorships
  • that offered territorial expansion by military
    conquest as the way to redress of rivalries,
    dominate trade, and gain access to raw materials.
  •  
  • Japanese nationalists Greater East Asia
    Co-Prosperity Sphere

7
  • What was the rhetoric of the United States
    government during WWII that argued it was a just
    and glorious war?
  • War against the enemy who represented
    totalitarianism, racism, militarism, overt
    aggressive warfare.
  • The rhetoric included that the US entered the war
    to defend the principle of non-intervention in
    affairs of other countries.
  • The argument included that the US was a democracy
    with certain liberties while Germany was a
    dictatorship that persecuted Jews and other
    minorities, imprisoning dissidents and
    proclaiming Nordic supremacy.
  •  

8
Italy Invades Ethiopia
  • 1922 Benito Mussolini came to power and launched
    military buildup
  • 1935 invaded Ethiopia.
  • General Franco overthrows left-wing democracy in
    Spain

9
  • What governments and conflicts did the United
    States Government support abroad? What
    characterized those governments and their motives
    for engaging in conflict?
  • The United States supported Mussolini's war
    against Ethiopia by sending oil,
  • ignored the persecution of Jews,
  • supported Franco and his coup against the
    socialist/democratic government by claiming
    neutrality.
  •  

10
  • What were the priorities that determined foreign
    policy and who would be considered allies and who
    would be considered enemies?
  •  
  • National power, economic interest not human and
    civil rights

11
Japan Invades China
  • 1937 Rape of Nanjing
  • 370,000 civilians killed
  • 80,000 women and girls raped, some murdered
  • Pro-claimed Japans intention to lead a Greater
    East Asia Co-prosperity sphere
  • Self sufficient economic zone to liberate peoples
    of Asia from Western colonialism

12
Adolph Hitler
  • 1933 Hitler and the Nationalist Socialist Party
    came to power
  • instituted a fascist regime, one party
    dictatorship
  • Denounced the Versailles agreement
  • Blamed Germanys plight on a Jewish conspiracy
  • Declared genetic superiority of Aryan race and
    German speaking peoples
  • Promised new Empire of the 3rd Reich

13
Hitlers Goals Domestic Policy
  • remove the cancer of democracy
  • create a new authoritarian leadership
  • forge a new domestic unity
  • struggle First all else subordinate
  • Lebensraum rearm-prepare for living space
  • Mein Kampf race is the key to history (founders,
    bearers and destroyers of culture)

14
Death Camps
  • Auschwitz and Treblinka, the SS organized the
    extermination of 6 million Jews and 1 million
    Poles, Gypsies, and others who failed to fit the
    Nazi vision of the master race.
  • Soviet soldiers overran the death camps and freed
    the few survivors of the Holocaust.

15
Further Expansion of Japan
  • As European nations lost contact with Asian
    colonies
  • Japan swept in calling for incorporation of S.E.
    Asia into East Asian Co-prosperity Sphere
  • U.S. banned aviation fuel Scrap Metal
  • Expanded trade embargo
  • Promised further assistance to China
  • Accelerated military build up in pacific
  • Froze Japanese assets in U.S.

16
Pearl Harbor
  • Japan planned for attack on US
  • December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
  • 19 ships
  • 288 aircraft
  • 2,200 Americans
  • United Galvanized a Nation

17
  • Pearl harbor has long been portrayed as a
    surprise attack, caused simply by the barbarism
    of Japanese. What actions by the United States
    led to the bombing and why did the United States
    make the decisions it had that led to a path of
    war?
  •  

18
  • Pearl Harbor is the event that brought us fully
    into war.
  • First Japan was empire building and seeking to be
    the supreme power in southeast Asia.
  • The US in response placed a total embargo on
    scrap iron, and oil in 1941.
  • Economic sanctions were recognized as a path
    leading to war.
  • The white house anticipated war with Japan, in
    fact had been avoiding it for generations.
  • As the United states supported China through
    support needed to bolster defense, and by
    providing economic credits, this escalated
    tensions with Japan

19
War in Pacific continued
  • First 6 months in Japans favor
  • War without Mercy racial prejudice reinforced
    brutality.
  • Japan a war to establish superiority of divine
    Yamato Race
  • Prisoners (most Asian) Brutalized in unimaginable
    ways - survival rate low
  • Tested bacterial weapons on Chinese

20
Pacific Campaign
  • During 1943 and 1944 submarines choked off food,
    oil and raw materials bound for Japan and other
    island bases.
  • Conventional bombing destroyed 42 of Japans
    industrial capacity
  • by the time the US captured the Islands of Iwo
    Jima and Okinawa in 1945 Japans position was
    hopeless.
  •  
  • Yalta Conference in 1945 Roosevelt, Stalin and
    Churchill debated plans for the postwar world,

21
American Propaganda
  • Images played on themes of racial inferiority of
    Japanese
  • Superiority of Americans
  • Japanese Animalistic sub-humans

22
Pacific Strategy
  • 1945 Japan essentially beat but would not
    surrender
  • FDR died one month before Germanys surrender and
    Five before Japans
  • Harry S. Truman
  • Atomic Power Arms Race
  • Manhattan project

23
Why Drop the Bombs?
  • August 6 Hiroshima (80,000)
  • August 8 Nagasaki (40,000) immediate deaths (fat
    man mushroom cloud)
  •  
  • Dropped 2 of 3 available leading to formal
    surrender on September 2, 1945

24
Atomic Age
  • New level of Violence
  • Instantaneous incineration of humans and
    structures
  • Radiation disease
  • Inaugurated new atomic age
  • Dreams of peace mingled with Armageddon
  • Formal surrender September 2, 1945

25
War at Home
26
Study Guide Identifications
  • Rationing
  • Progressive taxation
  • Labor gains
  • New Job Opportunities
  • Social issues raised by the war
  • Office of War Information
  • Gender inequality
  • Double V Campaign

27
Identifications continued
  • FEPC
  • Port of Chicago, 1944
  • Zoot Suit
  • Urban Relocation Program
  • Executive Order 9066
  • Richard Wright
  • Gunnar Mydral

28
Study Guide Questions
  • Why did mobilization for war produce complex
    economic and social changes in American life?
  • What major institutions and policies shaped the
    reconstruction of the postwar period? 

29
I. Economy
  • WWII transformed political economy, government,
    business, financial institutions and its labor
    force.
  • Federal bureaucracy quadrupled in size, new
    economic agencies proliferated.
  • War production Board
  • Government regulation survived post war
  • 1940-1945 economy expanded GNP rose 15 every
    year of the war.  

30
a. Government, Science Technology
  • Unprecedented relationship between government and
    industry to promote scientific and technological
    research and development
  • The Office of Scientific Research and Development
    headed by Vannenar Bush.  

31
c. War bonds, rationing, and progressive taxation
  • Few goods - invested in bonds
  • Rationing of essentials food, fabric and gasoline
  • Shared more equitably than before the war
  • sense of shared sacrifice, helped ease class
    tensions of 1930s
  • Higher taxes on the wealthier (Progressive Taxes)
  • redistributed income
  • narrowed the gap between poor and well to do 

32
Work Force
  • First 2 years of military build up
  • Employment rose, jobs created went to men
  • skilled labor went to white men
  • Government sponsored training progress went to
    white men
  • Refused women and minorities 

33
Changing Composition
  • As military service drained supply white male
    workers, women and minorities stepped in
  • African Americans
  • migrated north into the industrial cities
  • Mexicans
  • entered US as Bracero guest unskilled worker
    program.
  • Women assumed jobs never before open
  • welders, ship builders, lumberjacks and minors
  • Minority women
  • domestics to clerical and secretarial jobs 

34
Conservation Propaganda
  • Wear it out, use it up, make it do, or do
    without it
  • war now equated parsimonious life style with
    patriotism rather than poverty.

35
Anti-discrimination Legislation
  • 1941 the Fair Employment Practices Commission
    tried to band discrimination in hiring
  • 1943 government would not recognize as collective
    bargaining agents any unions that denied
    admittance to minorities
  • War labor board, outlawed the practice of paying
    different wages to whites and non whites doing
    the same job.

36
Labor Unions Temporary Gains
  • Labor unions scarcity of labor strengthened
    unions
  • Still main beneficiaries remained white males
  • Unions fought for contracts stipulating equal pay
    form men and women in the same job, but only
    male jobs for the purpose to maintain wage
    levels for their return
  • During war women held 25 of all jobs in auto
    factories, and by mid 1946 only 7.5

37
Economic Change
  • During war the workplace was more diverse than
    ever before
  • More people entered paid labor force
  • Earned more money than rationing restrictions
    allowed them to spend
  • Institutional scale of American life was
    transformed
  • Big government, big business, and big labor grew
    bigger
  • Science and tech forged new links of mutual
    interest among the three sectors. 

38
Social Issues
  • The war most Americans believed was being fought
    to preserve democracy and individual freedom
    against political systems that trampled both
  • War time ideals highlighted everyday inequalities
  • Defining and redefining the American way of
    life. 

39
War time Propaganda
  • WWI
  • Government propagandists asked Americans to fight
    for more democratic world and a permanent peace
  • Skeptical generation of the 1930 and 1940s
  • Failure of Wilsons promises 

40
Visual propaganda
  • FDR
  • Fight to preserve the American way of life, not
    to save the world
  • Norman Rockwell and Frank Capra
  • Hollywood
  • the American film is our most important weapon
  • why we fight

41
Print Propaganda
  • Sold benefits of freedom
  • Appeared in the guise of new and improved
    consumer goods
  • Americans were fighting to restore the consumer
    society of the 1920s
  • Office of War Information
  • coordinate policies related to propaganda and
    censorship
  • established branches around the world, published
    victory magazine, hundreds of films, posters
    and radio broad castes.

42
Gender (In) Equality
  • Nostalgic portraits of an American way of life
    often clashed with the socioeconomic changes that
    wartime mobilization brought 
  • lives and status of women
  • As women took over jobs traditionally held by
    men, many people began to take more seriously the
    idea of gender equality

43
Gains?
  • 350,000 women volunteered for military duty
  • 1,000 served as civilian pilots
  • (WASP) Womens Air Force Service Pilots
  • 2 of the military personnel they broke
    stereotypes

44
Womens Roles
  • What has become on the manhood of America, that
    we have to call on our women?
  • Womens Corps with full status for each branch of
    the military.
  • Framed changes in womens roles in highly
    traditional terms
  • short term sacrifice necessary to preserve
    womens special responsibilities, hearth and home
  • a woman can do anything if she knows she looks
  • beautiful doing it.

45
Inequalities exacerbated
  • Women to blame
  • Rise in juvenile delinquency
  • Rise in divorce rate during the war years
  • Widened the symbolic gap between femininity and
    masculinity
  • Pin up mentality
  • Manliness equated with brutality and casual sex
    Tough guy fiction - violent and misogynist edge

46
Racial (In)equality
  • Messages about race wartime culture both
    propelled yet firmly resisted change
  • Fight against fascism challenged traditional lack
    of or limited access to political, legal, or
    economic systems of African Americans

47
New Thinking
  • Nazism, a philosophy based on the idea of racial
    inequality
  • Exposed racist underpinnings of much of the 20th
    century social science theory
  • The view that racial difference was not a
    function of biology but a function of culture
    gained wider popular acceptance
  • Helped to lay the foundation for the postwar
    power struggle against discrimination.  

48
African American Challenge
  • Challenged the government to live up to its own
    rhetoric about freedom and democracy
  • Harlem newspaper called for a Double V campaign,
    victory at home and abroad.
  • A Phillip Randolph threatened march on Washington
    to demand more defense jobs and integration of
    the military forces

49
Precedents for Change
  • Roosevelt - concessions in exchange for canceling
    the march
  • FEPC, Fair Employment Practices Commission
    (Executive Order 8802) "there shall be no
    discrimination in the employment of workers in
    defense industries or government because of race,
    creed, color, or national origin."
  • Conservative coalition in congress prevented its
    passage in 1950
  • The army remained segregated, NAACP paper a Jim
    crow army cannot fight for a free world
  • forced change, need for soldiers

Are You Beyond the Call of Duty?
50
Discrimination Peaked 1944
  • Explosion at a naval ammunitions depot in Port
    Chicago
  • killed 300
  • Next group refused, military court marshaled 50
  • Sentences 8-15 years
  • 1994 Freddie Meeks, at 80 requested and received
    a presidential pardon. 

51
Rise of Racial Tensions
  • Urban centers
  • California, landlords practices
  • Restrictive housing covenants-legal agreements
    prohibiting the sale of homes to certain
    religious racial groups 
  • A few black neighborhoods, overcrowded and
    impoverished
  • European immigrants job competition of the 6
    10,000 blacks migrating from rural areas 

52
Zoot Suits
  • Zoot suit incidents of 1943
  • Evidences continuing political and social
    repression of government, policing Institutions
    and military of minority especially Mexican
    communities
  • Fearing disruption with Latin American Good
    Neighbor Policy prompted government intervention

53
American Indians
  • American Indians compromised a significant group
    of new migrants to urban areas also
  • Urban relocation program
  • 25,000 men and several thousand women served in
    the armed forces
  • 40,000 more worked in cities
  • Experienced hostility and racism

54
Japanese hysteria
  • Fear of Saboteurs was widespread,
  • a menace that justified extraordinary action
    according to racists
  • Executive Order 9066

55
Internment Camps
  • 130,000 mainland Japanese lost all their
    belongings and wealth
  • 2/3 were native born. Many had been substantial
    landowners in Californias agricultural
    industries.
  • Distinguished military service
  • 100th battalion from Hawaii was nearly wiped out,
  • 57 442nd regimental combat team were killed or
    wounded in the mountains of Italy
  • 6,000members of the military intelligence service
    provide invaluable service in the pacific.

56
Themes of National Unity
  • Symbol of the melting pot together with appeals
    to nationalism remained powerful
  • A peoples war
  • Americas melting pot vs. German and Japanese
    obsessions with racial purity

57
Rise of Civil Rights Movement
  • American way of life represented a commitment not
    to the past but the future
  • racial grievances must be addressed
  • NAACP jobs and political power
  • CORE non violent resistance to segregation

58
Eroding Barriers Towards Civil Rights
  • Movements of population eroded geographical
    boundaries
  • Wartime demand for labor weakened barriers to
    many occupations
  • As each of Americas ethnic and racial minorities
    established records of distinguished military
    service, the claim of equality Americans all in
    the words of a wartime slogan took a greater
    moral force.

59
  • Richard Wright wrote that American had to do
    something about the White Problem

60
  • Swedish scholar, Gunnar Mydral An American
    Dilemma The Negro Problem Modern Democracy
    (1944)
  • predicted fundamental changes would have to come
    through the nation
  • Race problem was solvable if white Americans
    acknowledged the contradictions between black
    Americans and the Nations democratic ideals
  • The contradiction he referred to as the American
    Creed

61
Spheres of Influence Post-war
  •   Wartime conversations between Stalin, Churchill
    and Roosevelt had all assumed that powerful
    nations would have special spheres of influence
  • Agreed on how divide the world.
  • Against Rhetoric of self- determination

62
Beginnings of Cold War
  • FDR contradictory policies toward soviet sphere
    of interest became apparent after his death
  • As the cold war developed
  • US policy would be in favor of supporting
    colonization (re assembling) rather than self
    determination
  • Americas colonies, such as the Philippines
  • Grant independence and install leaders
    favorable to the US, US maintained control and
    money benefit  

63
New and On going Boundary Issues
  • Question of a Jewish homeland, in the middle
    east
  • Zionism, the movement to found the Jewish state
    in Palestine
  • New state of Israel
  • When Truman formally recognized Israel,
    importance of middle eastern affairs to US
    policy makers would take on greater importance
    and urgency.
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