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RELIGION: THE GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECIVE

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RELIGION: THE GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECIVE Hinduism-ethnic religion Ganesh Shrine, Kathmandu, Nepal Chronologically, the oldest of the major religions Arose in Indus ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RELIGION: THE GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECIVE


1
RELIGION THE GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECIVE
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3
Hinduism-ethnic religion Ganesh
Shrine, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Chronologically, the oldest of the major
    religions
  • Arose in Indus Valley, 4,000 years ago
  • No evolving bureaucratic structures
  • Reincarnation
  • Doctrines allied with India's caste system
  • Tied to the physical landscape
  • Modernization and Gandhi helped relax the caste
    system

4
Hinduism
  • Diffusion
  • Arose in what is now Pakistan
  • No modern expansion diffusion
  • Area overtaken by Buddhism and Islam
  • Bali outpost has become a syncretic faith
  • Relocation diffusion not the foci
  • Cultural landscape
  • Hinduism is a way of life
  • Building a temple gives good Karma
  • Shrine location important
  • Visual AND emotional

5
Buddhism- Universalizing
  • Resurgence in India
  • Buddha (Prince Siddhartha) spoke out against
    caste system
  • Diffusion
  • Grew slowly after Buddhas death
  • Fragmented today, but experiencing a revival
  • Principals keep diffusing, notably in the Western
    world
  • Cultural landscape
  • The Bodhi tree
  • Pagodas

6
Chinese religions- Ethnic religions
  • Taoism
  • Confucianism
  • Diffusion
  • Confucianism diffused early into the Korean
    Peninsula, Japan, and Southeast Asia
  • Taoism more local
  • Chinese communist authorities leveled burial
    mounds because they took up too much ground
    suitable for farming
  • Cultural landscape
  • Confucianism and Taoism help expand impact of
    Buddhist cultural influences

7
Shinto ethnic religion of Japan
8
Judaism-ethnic religion, exception to the rule,
has diffused
  • The oldest major religion to emerge west of the
    Indus Valley
  • Diffusion
  • Diaspora
  • Sephardim
  • Zionismhomeland for Jewish people
  • Israel created in 1948 by UN
  • Cultural landscape
  • Synagogues, but no single architectural style
  • Star of David appears on most Jewish graves
  • The Wailing Wall

9
Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, Israel
10
Christianity-Universalizing
  • Jewish search for deliverance from Romans
    appearance of Jesus
  • Pauls role
  • Eastern Roman Empire (Constantinople)
  • Eastern (Orthodox) Church still one of three
    major branches
  • The papacy, second branch
  • Protestant movement
  • Diffusion
  • A combination of expansion and relocation
    diffusion during European colonialism
  • Most widespread of the global religions
  • Aggressive and persistent proselytism

11
http//www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/china_70
5/
12
Christianity
  • Cultural landscape
  • Medieval Europe
  • Imprint of death on the landscape
  • Uses more land for cemeteries than any other faith

13
http//www.mapsofwar.com/ind/history-of-religion.h
tml
14
Christianity
  • Religions and culture regions in the United
    States
  • The Mormon culture region
  • Christian culture regions better known

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Islam-universalizing
  • The youngest of the major faiths
  • Religious and social disarray in Arab world
  • Unifying religious faith and set of values
  • Mecca, Medina, then Jerusalem became the
    spiritual center
  • Believed strongly in education
  • Still the heart of Arab culture
  • Islamization

17
Islam by 900 CE
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Islam Shiite
  • Regions and sects
  • Division ? conflict-2 BRANCHES
  • Sunnis family and community to solve problems
  • Shiites Imam is solver
  • ImamsShiite Muslims leaders whose appointments
    are regarded as sanctioned by Allah
  • Diffusion
  • Trading expansions led to conflicts with
    Christianity
  • The Crusades
  • Continues to attract converts
  • Experiencing resurgence expansion will continue
  • Classic example of hierarchical diffusion

20
Islam
  • Cultural landscape
  • Mosques dominate the urban landscapes
  • Muslim architects very skilled
  • Exquisite and distinct architecture
  • A symbol for faith and community
  • Islam religion and culture are one

21
The Alhambra an example of Muslim Architecture
22
The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem an example of
Muslim tile glazing
23
Religious Fundamentalism
  • A worldwide drive by millions back to the
    basics (in whose eyes?) of religious faith
  • Often born out of frustration
  • Tunnel Vision
  • 9/11 led to many Americans equating terrorism
    with Islam
  • Globalization and religions
  • 1. strict adherence to the holy text
  • 2. pious or religiosity
  • 3.

24
Religious Fundamentalism
  • Christian fundamentalism
  • Christian fundamentalism most pronounced in
    Protestantism
  • Islamic fundamentalism
  • Laws not equally applied
  • Inconsistency breeds dissidence
  • From Shah to Ayatollah
  • 1970s and 1980s most significant
  • Afghanistan under the Taliban
  • Jihad and Wahhabi
  • Extreme Islamic fundamentalists who resort to
    violence are relatively small in number (Usually
    from the Shiites)

25
Resources
  • De Blij, Harm, J. (2007). Human Geography People,
    Place and Culture. Hoboken, NJ John Wiley
    Sons Inc.
  • Domosh, Mona, Neumann, Roderic, Price,
    Patricia, Jordan-Bychkov, 2010. The Human
    Mosaic, A Cultural Approach to Human Geography.
    New York W.H. Freeman and Company.
  • Fellman, Jerome, D., Getis, Arthur, Getis,
    Judith, 2008. Human Geography, Landscapes of
    Human Activities. Boston, MA McGraw-Hill Higher
    Education.
  • Pulsipher, Lydia Mihelic and Alex M. and
    Pulsipher, 2008. World Regional Geography, Global
    Patterns, Local Lives. W.H. Freeman and Company
    New York.  
  • Rubenstein, James M. (2008). An introduction
    to human geography The cultural landscape. Upper
    Saddle River, NJ Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Benewick, Robert, Donald, Stephanie H. (2005).
    The State of
  • China Atlas. Berkeley University of
    California Press.
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