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The Early History and Scope of Psychology

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Title: The Early History and Scope of Psychology


1
The Early History and Scopeof Psychology
2
Define Psychology
  • The science of behavior and mental processes

3
Early History (around 387 B.C.)
  • Socrates, and his student Plato (Greek
    Philosophers)
  • The mind and the body are two separate entities,
    and do not influence each other.

4
  • Socrates, and Plato believed that
  • Human behavior and knowledge is pre-disposed and
    genetically built-in (Nature).
  • IE. If you are intelligent, you were born with a
    smart brain. If you are athletic, you were born
    with strong muscles and balance. If you are
    violent, depressed, or forgetful, you were born
    with a brain disorder.

5
  • Aristotle (335 B.C.)

The mind and the body are inseparable and each
influences the other with regards to behavior.
6
  • Aristotle (Greek Philosopher)
  • Human behavior and knowledge is not preexisting
    it grows from the experiences stored in our
    memories (Nurture).
  • IE. You are violent because you watched it on
    television. You are smart because you studied.
    You are kind because you were loved.

7
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8
  • Rene Descartes (French Philosopher) (1600s)
  • The body and the mind are separate entities,
    though they do interact and communicate through
    the spirits of the brain, and the passages of
    the body. Knowledge is inborn as well.
  • Early dissections led to the early understanding
    of mind/body connections (biological psychology).

9
1600s
  • John Locke (British Philosopher)
  • Tabula rasa (Empiricism) literally means blank
    slate
  • Theory the mind is at birth a "blank slate"
    without rules for processing data, and that data
    is added and processed based solely by our
    sensory experiences.
  • It also emphasized the individual's freedom to
    author his or her own soul.

10
  • IE. There are no inherited notions regarding the
    world. Therefore, my decision to drink or not to
    drink is based solely on my sensory experience of
    the taste and effects of a glass of wine, not my
    parents alcoholism. My grades in school and my
    professional goals are based on my study and work
    habits, not my parents idiocy.

11
1600s
  • Francis Bacon (English Scientist)
  • Stressed the scientific principles of observation
    and experimentation when evaluating human
    behavior

12
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • 1879 establishes the first psychology laboratory
    at the University of Leipzig, Germany.
  • This is generally considered the starting point
    of Psychology as a science.

13
Psychology Comes to America
  • G. Stanley Hall (1846-1924)
  • A student of Wundt
  • Establishes 1st American laboratory at Johns
    Hopkins (1883)
  • Founded 1st American Psych. journal (1887)
  • Founded American Psychological Association-APA
    (1892)

14
1880s
  • Edward Titchener (Structuralism)
  • A student of Wundt
  • Measured and compared individuals perceptions of
    smells, sights, memories, etc., Introspection
  • Provides direct contact with the mind.

15
  • Structuralists break human experiences down into
    their smallest parts in order to understand the
    entire behavior.

16
  • William James (turn of the century)
    (Functionalism)
  • Focused on the physical functions of the brain
    and the body, and how they worked together
  • Also, reintroduced the Darwinist theory of human
    evolution, and that body and brain functions
    evolved as humans learned about and experienced
    the world

17
Psychoanalytic Perspective
  • Psychoanalysts believe that the unconscious mind
    (a part of our mind that we do not have conscious
    control over or access to) controls much or our
    thought and action.
  • Sigmund Freud

18
  • IE. An introverted person avoids social
    situations because of a repressed memory of
    trauma in childhood involving an acutely
    embarrassing experience at a party.

19
Behavioral Perspective
  • Behavioral psychologists explain human thought
    and behavior by looking strictly at observable
    behaviors and what reaction organisms get in
    response to specific behaviors.
  • Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner

20
  • IE. An introverted person may be withdrawn and
    shy because they are punished for speaking at
    home. An extrovert may get monetary rewards for
    garnering attention.

21
Humanistic Perspective
  • Humanists believe that we choose most of our
    behaviors and these choices are guided by
    physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs.
    Humanists stress free will and individual choice.
  • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

22
  • IE. An introverted person chooses to limit
    social contact with others because he or she
    finds that social needs are better satisfied by
    contact with a few close friends rather than
    large groups.

23
Biopsychology (Neuroscience)
  • Biopsychologists explain human behavior in terms
    of biological processes, including genetics,
    hormones, and brain (dys)functions.

24
  • IE. An introverted person may lack a certain gene
    for sociability, or an extroverted person may be
    producing an overabundance of a particular
    hormone. There may be a dysfunctional frontal
    lobe.

25
Evolutionary Perspective
  • Evolutionary psychologists (sociobiologists)
    examine human behavior in terms of natural
    selection and survival traits.
  • Charles Darwin

26
  • IE. An extroverted person carries a social
    genetic trait based upon the need to make friends
    or allies, thus increasing their chances of
    survival. An introverted person may have a
    genetic quality that precludes isolation as a way
    to avoid predators, thus increasing their chances
    for survival.

27
Cognitive Perspective
  • Cognitive psychologists explain human behavior in
    terms of how we interpret, process, and remember
    environmental events.
  • How we view the world plays a big role in what we
    do!
  • Stimulus Mental process
    Behavior

28
  • IE. An introvert does not socialize much because
    they interpret friendship as pity, or whispered
    conversations as criticism. An extrovert may
    think that the world is a happy and safe place,
    and therefore all people are potential friends.

29
Social-Cultural Perspective
  • Sociocultural psychologists
  • emphasize the influence of groups and culture on
    the way that we think and act.

30
  • IE. An female introvert lives in a society where
    women are not allowed to talk, vote, or own land.
    An extrovert lives in a society where gluttony
    and extravagance is encouraged.

31
Fields in Psychology
  • What do people do with a degree in Psychology?
  • what can I do with a degree in Psychology?

32
Fields in Psychology
  • Applied v. Basic Psychology
  • Applied refers to practical and interactive
    psychology.
  • the use of psychological principles and theories
    to overcome problems in other areas
  • Basic refers mainly to the research fields of
    psychology.

33
Therapy
  • Mental and physical rehabilitation regarding
    mental disorders.
  • Can include medications, in/out patient services,
    counseling, etc.

34
School
  • Assisting school-aged children, adolescence
    issues, counseling, etc.

35
Clinical
  • Diagnosis and treatment of troubled people.
  • Career, marriage, stress counseling.

36
Industrial/Organizational
  • Productivity, job stress, motivation,
    automation.

Practical issues of selecting and training a
workforce
37
Forensic Psychology
  • Provide advice to legislators, judges,
    correctional officers, lawyers and the police
  • Called upon, for example, to serve as an expert
    witness, diagnose and treat incarcerated and
    probation offenders and screen and evaluate
    personnel in the law enforcement and judicial
    systems

38
Sports Psychology
  • Issues and techniques of sport-specific
    psychological assessment and mental skills
  • Goal-setting, visualization and performance
    planning, self-confidence, eating disorders,
    overtraining and burnout counseling, team
    building, sportsmanship

39
Developmental
  • Study mental and physical growth from prenatal
    through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and
    into old age.

40
Social
  • Study how people influence each others attitudes,
    prejudices, norms, interpersonal attractions, etc.

41
Cognitive
  • Experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve
    problems

42
Experimental
  • Conduct research on learning, memory, sensation,
    perception, cognition, motivation, etc.

43
Major Research Areas pie chart
44
Careers in Psychology Percentage of Psychology
Degrees by Specialty
45
Current Perspectives in Psychology
46
Woman and Minorities
  • Few woman and minorities in early 1900s
  • Women
  • ? Margaret Floy Washburn - first PhD 1894
  • - Mary Calkins - first president of APA
  • - Currently woman get about 70 of PhDs
  • African Americans
  • ? Francis Sumner - first PhD in 1920
  • - Kenneth B. Clark- first PhD from Colombia in
    1940 - brown vs. white doll study - helped with
    desegregation of public schools

47
  • What is the difference between a psychologist
    and a psychiatrist?

48
Psychology v. Psychiatry
  • Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders.
  • Psychiatrists are medical doctors and can
    prescribe medications to treat the physical and
    mental causes of psychological disorders.
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