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Annotated Timeline of European History


Annotated Timeline of European History Golden Age of Greece Greece developed on the Balkan Peninsula and expanded to dominate the Mediterranean. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Annotated Timeline of European History

Annotated Timeline of European History
Golden Age of Greece
  • Greece developed on the Balkan Peninsula and
    expanded to dominate the Mediterranean. Greeces
    rocky physical features led to the growth of
    numerous city-states, which developed their own
    forms of government.
  • Athens (democracy) and Sparta (military
    oligarchy) were two of the most famous
    city-states. Greek culture diffused through trade
    and conquest.

Rise of Rome
  • Romans built vast systems of roads and bridges to
    move people/armies quickly. They also built
    aqueducts to improve water supplies to large
    cities. The Romans significantly modified their
    environment with public works projects and urban
  • The Roman army and navy were able to control most
    of the Mediterranean region

Roman Republic to Empire
  • began with the Roman Republic and later increased
    land holdings through conquest
  • Because of its central location, Rome became the
    dominant power in the Mediterranean
  • At its height, the large land empire spread from
    Northern Britain to Africa and Asia.

Rise of Christianity and the Crusades
  • The Catholic Church pushed into northern and
    Eastern Europe for about 400 years to spread
  • Crusaders followed established trade routes in
    their move eastward and returned with new
    technology and ideas spread through cultural

Holy Roman Empire
  • During the Holy Roman Empire, Charlemagne became
    the protector of both the church and state in
    central Europe. Charlemagne could expand his
    territory because of the lack of any natural
    barriers to impede his armys conquests.
  • The Vatican City, where the Pope lives, is an
    independent country within the city limits of
    Rome, Italy. This political arrangement stems
    from the historical power of the Catholic Church

Medieval Society
  • Feudalism was a medieval political and social
    system based on agriculture. Nobles controlled
    the land and divided it among their knights and
    vassals in return for loyalty and support. Small
    towns grew up around each lords castle.
  • This is an example of settlement patterns and the
    geographic influence of agriculture. New
    agricultural methods during this time increased
    crop yields.

Growth of Cities
  • Kings supported the growth of large cities
    because it enabled them to provide protection
    against powerful enemies. The growth of cities
    and the increase in trade after the Crusades
    helped speed the spread (diffusion) of the
    bubonic plague across Europe in 1353. Millions of
    people died.

  • The Renaissance began in the cities of northern
    Italy and spread to other cities of Europe.
    Italys central location on Mediterranean trade
    routes made the area rich and prosperous. The
    Alps protected Italy from the north. The
    Renaissance spread north and west from Italy.

  • Some of the new ideas given birth in the
    Renaissance led to questions about religion.
    Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire (central
    Europe) began to question the Churchs power and
    teachings. Geography made it difficult for Rome
    to exert influence and control. The power of the
    Catholic Church collapsed in central Europe.
    Trade and geography had an impact on this event.

Age of Exploration
  • The Portuguese began exploration around the coast
    of Africa toward the riches of Asia, while
    Christopher Columbus searched for another way to
    the East. Spain and Portugals location on the
    ocean made them the leaders in the age of
    exploration. New technology made long voyages
    across open oceans reasonable. The prevailing
    winds carried explorers to new lands east and

Age of Revolution
  • In America, the colonists won freedom from their
    mother country, while in Europe, the people
    fought for freedom from their kings and queens.
    The ideas of the French Revolution spread with
    Napoleons conquest of Europe. The Industrial
    Revolution led to advances in industry and a
    migration of workers from farms to cities to find

World War I
  • World War I lasted four years many European
    cities were destroyed and millions of people were
    killed or wounded. European nations competed for
    power. Germanys central location left it with
    enemies on two sides, Russia and France.
  • Russia was a monarchy (tsar)- because of poverty,
    lack of bread, unemployment and losing the war,
    Russians overthrew their government (Bolshnevik
    Revolution) and created a Communist regime.

World War II
  • World War II was fought mainly in Europe and the
    Pacific, and was even costlier and bloodier than
    World War I. Germany, Japan and Italy wanted to
    expand their control over land and resources.

Cold War
  • The Cold War was the global competition between
    the United States and the Communist Soviet Union.
    After WWII an Iron Curtain divided Europe between
    Soviet control and Western freedom.