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CALEB M. WAFULA M.A Peace and Conflict Student,


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Title: CALEB M. WAFULA M.A Peace and Conflict Student,

Does Social Protection Lead to Social
Inclusion? The Debate and Evidence from Kenya's
Urban Informal Settlements
  • CALEB M. WAFULAM.A Peace and Conflict Student,
  • Kenyatta University
  • 16th Dec 2014

  • Acknowledgement
  • Introduction
  • Scope and Methodology
  • Field Findings
  • Policy Implications
  • Conclusion

  • Sincere Gratitude to UNICEF Tanzania for the
    opportunity to make the presentation.
  • Very grateful to the respondents in various
    capacities who willingly granted interviews, and
    gave very valuable information during the field

  • The study interests lies in Kenyas Urban
    Informal Settlements an area inundated with
    frequent shocks(both idiosyncratic and
    covariate), and stresses that tends to perpetuate
    and recycle generational poverty.
  • The main focus of the study is to examine how
    social protection can lead to social inclusion
  •  What does exists are fragmented pieces of
    evaluative literature that tends to be skewed
    towards positive impact of social protection, yet
    there is evident indication of the ability of
    social protection to tackle wider structural
    drivers of social exclusion and poverty.

  • Increasingly, development agencies have been slow
    in translating their commitments into practices
    and operationalization
  • The fundamental questions the study sought to
    address are
  • what are the impacts of social protection
    interventions on five dimensions of wellbeing
    food security access to education the ability
    to take advantage of economic opportunities and
    generate income participation in social networks
    and activities,

  • What are the economic, social and institutional
    factors affecting human well-being in the
    informal settlements of Kenya.
  • What are the issues of sustainability and best
    practices needed for transformative social
    protection intervention measures towards social

Scope Methodolgy
  • Paper adopts the Kenya National Social
    Protection Policys transformative definition of
    social protection Policies and actions,
    including legislative measures, that enhance the
    capacity of and opportunities for the poor and
    vulnerable to improve and sustain their lives,
    livelihoods, and welfare, that enable
    income-earners and

Cont.. ScopeMethodology
Understanding the contribution of this paper
ought to begin by acknowledging the fact that
most explanations offered so far largely focuses
on settlement and Agro-pastoralism as the way of
improving ASAL communities livelihood, but no
scholarship entirely examines the transitioning
of pastoralism towards a green economy, which
justifies this study.
Understanding the contribution of this paper
ought to begin by acknowledging the fact that
most explanations offered so far largely focuses
on settlement and Agro-pastoralism as the way of
improving ASAL communities livelihood, but no
scholarship entirely examines the transitioning
of pastoralism towards a green economy, which
justifies this study.
  • their dependants to maintain a reasonable level
    of income through decent work, and that ensure
    access to affordable healthcare, social security,
    and social assistance.
  • The study analysis focuses on the Youth
    Enterprise and Development Fund (YEDF).
  • The main mission of the fund is to increase
    economic opportunities for participation

Cont..Scope Methodology
  • by Kenyan youth in nation building through
    enterprise development and strategic
  • To date, the fund has financed over 157,000 youth
    enterprises to the tune of Kshs. 5.9 billion
  • Geographically, although the YEDF is implemented
    across the country, the study concentrates on its

Cont..Scope and Methodology
  • contribution to social inclusion more narrowly on
    youths in urban informal settlements of Nairobi
    being the capital city and its cosmopolitan
    nature, it still remains relevant to other
    informal settlements outside the capital
  • , although life has various domains, this study
    concentrates on how YEDF impacts on five
    dimensions of wellbeing food security access to
    health and education the ability to take
    advantage of economic opportunities and generate
    income participation in social networks and
    activities, and state-society relations.

Cont..Scope Methodology
  • Analytical Framework
  • The study adopts the social exclusion framework
  • Silver (2007) defines social exclusion as a
    dynamic process that precludes full
    participation in the normatively prescribed
    activities of a given society and denies access
    to information, resources, sociability,
    recognition, and identity, eroding self-respect
    and reducing capabilities to achieve personal
  • Worth stressing is its multi-dimensional nature
    and the processes of marginalization and

Cont..Scope Methodology
  • Its main analytical strength lies in the fact
    that it can help not only in examining the
    effects of social protection interventions on
    different dimensions of deprivation, but also in
    showing how social protection can potentially
    tackle broader factors and conditions that
    produce and reproduce deprivations

ContiScope Methodology
  • The framework suggests that social protection
    interventions can be assessed against their
    ability to address both outcomes and drivers of
    social exclusion
  • Outcomes refer to the extent of economic and
    social exclusion people experience in different
    wellbeing dimensions and the effect on poverty.
  • Drivers of exclusion refer to economic, social
    and institutional processes that cause
    deprivations leading to poverty.

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Cont..Scope and Methodology
  • Methodology
  • Premised on a deep-dive methodology, with
    inductive methods to gather both qualitative
    information and quantitative data
  • The rationale for mixing is that neither
    quantitative nor qualitative methods are
    sufficient by themselves to capture the trends
    and details of the situation, such as how social
    protection contributes to Social inclusion.

Cont..Scope Methodology
  • Using Purpose Sampling, information was
    collected through 50 semi-structured interviews
    with beneficiaries of YEDF 4 Key Informant
    Interviews (KII) 1Focus Group Discussions (FGD)
  • Literature reviews were also carried out as a
    source of secondary data from journals, policy
    documents and books

  • Impacts of YEDF
  • YEDF loan provided necessary capital for the
    take-off especially in situations where the
    start-up capital was challenge.
  • most beneficiary respondents reported being less
    reliant on friends and family as they were able
    to start and grow their businesses, improve
    productivity, create opportunities for employment
    and improve their income generation

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Cont..Key findings
  • Worth noting is that majority (90) of the
    respondent beneficiaries do not save.
  • The above is a result of low returns from their
    insecure incomes.
  • Most participants noted that the finance is too
    small and grossly inadequate that it leads to
    low capital outlay.
  • Making it difficult to start a competitive
    business and

Conti...Key Findings
  • expand their economic activities.
  • Further worsened by their inability to secure
    bank loans which they attributed to the lack of
    collateral securities since they have low asset
  • Food Security Respondents reported small
    positive impacts in terms of general food
    security as they used their income to buy food
    and other non-food items.
  • average food intake levels of beneficiaries
    have improved and they hardly go without food.

Conti..Key Findings
  • Access to Education Through fund training,
    Participants said they had gained useful
    technical and management skills in business.
  • Key areas enterprise development, marketing,
    communications, fundraising, business planning,
    advisory and information services and Training of
  • However problem of illiteracy
  • Social Networks and ActivitiesPositive effect on
    social relations, including family relations and
    community members.

Conti..Key Findings
  • Apart from enhancing self esteem and the social
    interaction of beneficiaries, respondents noted
    that they are involved in various community
    activities and are able to voice their concerns
    on issues of community importance.
  • Worth emphasizing are the gender relations-
    provided young mothers with opportunities for
    economic empowerment, since most of them are
    sole breadwinners in their families.

Conti..Key Findings
  • Most women are also involved in community issues
    and have become part of the decisions and changes
    that affect their community.
  • More importantly, respondents reported to have
    abandoned immoral acts such as prostitution,
    drugs and crime.
  • That said,programme has had minimal impact in
    addressing the deeply-engrained ethnic resentment
    and poor governance environment that continues

Conti..Key Findings
  • State-society relations Mixed impacts on state
    society relations. Some beneficiaries were
    generally satisfied and appreciated the
    government YEDF efforts .
  • On the other hand, perceptions were not so
    positive, particularly towards the local level of
  • YEDF has undermined statesociety relations,
    given the high interest rates that to result
    to default default repayments

Chapter 4 Policy Consideration
  • The new constitution and the latest are National
    Policy for Social Protection , vision 2030 is a
    positive signals towards the realisation of the
    needs and aspirations of people in informal
  • What needs to be done in terms of more efficient
    social protection programmes in order to realize
    social inclusion?
  • That is how social protection policies and
    programmes can stimulate growth and development
    for improved community wellbeing.

Conti..Policy Implication
  • Below is a range of strategies that if
    implemented will reorient social protection
    towards social inclusion
  • The Importance of a Consolidated Approach
    Foster institutional links to other programmes
    and sectors with critical combination of
    government, private sector, and civil society
    with social protection orientations, to
    reintegrate those excluded from the enjoyment of
    the benefits of social economic development

Conti..Policy Implication
  • Emerging Social protection policies and
    initiatives must be efficient, culturally
    sensitive and above all adapted to informal
  • The need for community participation by engaging
    communities in defining acceptable criteria for
    assistance which is extremely helpful in
    unearthing the different specific challenges they
    face at the community level.

Conti..Policy Implication
  • Foster the sharing of best practices by creating
    room for upgrading and Scaling up Well-targeted,
    successful community pilot projects and Case
    Studies such as urban agriculture Table
  • Need for Structured Processes of Learning from
    Experience Pioneering attempts are inevitably
    imperfect but if they encounter a supportive and
    flexible policy environment, they may offer
    lessons on the conditions needed for the
    programmes and interventions to flourish

Conti..Policy Implication
  • Need for Greater advocacy and effective
    dissemination of information Wider dissemination
    of public information to help people understand
    and respond to the risks and challenges faced in
    the informal settlements.
  • Need for Benchmarks to Measure Progress by
    incorporating Monitoring and evaluation

Conti..Policy Implication
  • Access to markets and space with policies and
    laws geared towards promoting investment in
    informal settlements should be improved.
  • Invest in research to generate need-based
    innovations. For instance setting up an
    innovation fund for techpreneurs to come up with
    solutions for driving a knowledge-based
    economy, or business incubation centres for
    nurturing upcoming youth entrepreneurs

Conti..Policy Implication
  • Ned for policy consistency with informal
    settlements unique needs Although there are
    many instances in policy documents where
    governments emphasise their commitment to
    developing informal settlements, there are often
    other cross sectorial policy statements and
    signals that negate or reduce the effectiveness
    of efforts to promote social inclusion.

  • Undeniably, although YEDF has had positive
    contribution to poverty alleviation in the short
    run, it cannot however guarantee a sustained
    improvement in the various facets of life in the
    long run. To achieve wider social protection
    objectives, there is need for re-engineering of a
    new vision and strategic direction for social
    protection development from the short term risk
    and vulnerability, to create robust opportunities
    for empowerment among beneficiaries that will in
    turn lead to social inclusion.

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