Monitoring the Educational Progress of Racial/Ethnic Minorities: The United States Experience Roma Conference 2003 June 29-July 1 2003 This paper is intended to promote the exchange of ideas among researchers and policy makers. The views expressed - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Monitoring the Educational Progress of Racial/Ethnic Minorities: The United States Experience Roma Conference 2003 June 29-July 1 2003 This paper is intended to promote the exchange of ideas among researchers and policy makers. The views expressed

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Title: Monitoring the Educational Progress of Racial/Ethnic Minorities: The United States Experience Roma Conference 2003 June 29-July 1 2003 This paper is intended to promote the exchange of ideas among researchers and policy makers. The views expressed


1
Monitoring the Educational Progress of
Racial/Ethnic Minorities The United States
ExperienceRoma Conference 2003June 29-July 1
2003This paper is intended to promote the
exchange of ideas among researchers and policy
makers. The views expressed in it are part of
ongoing research and analysis and do not
necessarily reflect the position of the U.S.
Department of Education.
U.S. Department of Education Institute of
Education Sciences
National Center for Education Statistics
2
INTRODUCTION
  • This presentation will address the following
    questions posed by the conference
  • Why are racial/ethnic data collected? How are
    they used?
  • What has been the experience of the United
    States?
  • How can data be used to inform national policy
    development?

3
INTRODUCTION
  • To address these questions, the presentation will
    provide
  • A rationale for racial/ethnic data
  • An historical perspective
  • Current data standards
  • Issues in collecting racial/ethnic data
  • Indicators of educational performance and
    schooling contexts
  • Current policy uses

4
RATIONALE Why racial/ethnic data are collected
  • Race and ethnicity can be considered an indicator
    of complex social processes that end up
    stratifying individuals and providing them with
    differential access to opportunities and
    resources.
  • Data collected are necessary to evaluate
    inequalities across groups and identify the
    needed changes.

SOURCE American Sociological Association. 2003.
The Importance of Collecting Data and Doing
Social Scientific Research on Race. Washington,
DC American Sociological Association.
5
HISTORY U.S. Census and history of
racial/ethnic data collection
  • Racial data have been collected since the first
    census in 1790. Representation policy and tax
    collection mandates guided data collection by
    giving different consideration to Black slaves.
  • Data collection varied widely by state, with some
    states adopting additional race categories.

SOURCE Bennett, Claudette. 2000. Racial
Categories Used in the Decennial Censuses, 1790
to Present, Government Information Quarterly,
Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 161-180.
6
HISTORYU.S. Census and history of racial/ethnic
data collection
  • When the official Census Board was created in
    1850, additional categories were added and
    amended over the next 50 years.

SOURCE Bennett, Claudette. 2000. Racial
Categories Used in the Decennial Censuses, 1790
to Present, Government Information Quarterly,
Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 161-180.
7
HISTORYU.S. Census and history of racial/ethnic
data collection 1950 to 2000
  • Beginning in 1960, census data collection was
    completed primarily via mail and self
    identification was the primary means of
    collecting race information.
  • Category options were expanded however, data
    tabulation and category combinations varied until
    the 1980s.
  • In 1977, the Office of Management and Budget
    (OMB) first outlined federal standards for
    reporting race and ethnicity. These standards
    continue to be modified, yet have assured
    inter-agency consistency.

SOURCE Bennett, Claudette. 2000. Racial
Categories Used in the Decennial Censuses, 1790
to Present, Government Information Quarterly,
Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 161-180.
8
HISTORYPercent of 5- to 19-year olds enrolled
in school, by race 1850 to 2001
Percent enrolled
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, 120 Years of
American Education A Statistical Portrait, 1993
and unpublished tabulations.
9
DATA STANDARDSRecent review and revisions to
data collection guidelines as result of public
comment
  • Interest groups expressed criticism that
    guidelines did not reflect the increasing
    diversity of the U.S. resulting from inter-racial
    marriages and immigration.
  • During the 1990s, OMB conducted a comprehensive
    review of standards and several government
    agencies conducted usability studies on race
    survey questions.
  • New guidelines were developed in 1997 and agency
    compliance was expected by January 2003.

SOURCE U.S Department of Commerce, Census
Bureau, Revisions to the Standards for
Classification of Federal Data on Race and
Ethnicity, 2000
10
DATA STANDARDS1997 OMB definitions of
race\ethnic categories
  • White- A person having origins in any of the
    original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or
    North Africa.
  • Black or African American - A person having
    origins in any of the Black racial groups of
    Africa.
  • Hispanic or Latino - A person of Cuban, Mexican,
    Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American,
    or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of
    race.
  • Asian - a person having origins in any of the
    original peoples of he Far East, Southeast Asia,
    or the Indian subcontinent.
  • American Indian or Alaska Native a person
    having origins in any of the original peoples of
    North and South America and who maintains tribal
    affiliation or community attachment.
  • Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander - A
    person having origins in any of the original
    peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific
    Islands.

11
CURRENT ISSUES IN DATA COLLECTIONRecent
revisions to data collection guidelines
  • OMB maintained that the minimum categories be
    retained however, collection of more detailed
    information is permitted so long as the groups
    can be aggregated into the minimum categories.
  • Rather than creating a multiracial category,
    individuals are able to select more than one
    category. There are 64 potential combinations for
    the 5 racial groups and 2 ethnicities.
  • Agencies are encouraged to provide as much detail
    as possible about the distribution of multiple
    responses.

SOURCE U.S Department of Commerce, Census
Bureau, Revisions to the Standards for
Classification of Federal Data on Race and
Ethnicity, 2000.
12
CURRENT ISSUES IN DATA COLLECTIONMaintaining
respondent confidentiality
  • The distinctiveness of racial categories may
    increase the likelihood of obtaining individually
    identifiable information
  • Confidentiality of education data is protected by
    law
  • - the Privacy Act of 1974
  • - the E-Government Act of 2002
  • - the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002
  • The U.S. Patriot Act of 2001 allows the U.S.
    Attorney General to access individually
    identifiable data relevant to terrorism
    investigations.

SOURCE U.S Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, NCES Statistical
Standards, 2002.
13
INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND
PROGRESS Student performance
  • National Assessment of Educational Progress
    (NAEP) reports achievement scores by race/ethnic
    subgroups and provides information about trends
    in score differences between subgroups in order
    to present information about achievement gaps.

Trends in differences between White and Black
students average scores (White minus Black)
1971 to 1999
YEAR
Statistically different from gap in 1999
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, National
Assessment of Progress (NAEP), 1999 Trends in
Academic Progress.
14
INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND
PROGRESSProgram for International Student
Assessment (PISA)
  • Program for International Student Assessment
    (PISA) does not provide racial subgroup
    comparisons across all countries.
  • However, race and ethnicity data can be collected
    through country specific supplemental surveys.
    This practice seems to be limited to English
    speaking countries.

15
INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND
PROGRESSProgram for International Student
Assessment (PISA)
  • Several factors contribute to the lack of
    international definition standards
  • - Lack of consensus regarding definition
  • - Variance in demographic composition
  • - Confidentiality and privacy concerns

16
INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND
PROGRESSProgress in International Reading
Literacy Study (PIRLS)
U.S. fourth graders average (PIRLS) scores, by
race/ethnicity 2001
Average scale score
International average (500)
NOTE Race categories exclude Hispanic origin
unless specified. SOURCE International
Association for the Evaluation of Educational
Achievement, Progress in International Reading
Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.
17
PIRLS 4th grade achievement, by race/ethnicity
2001
U.S. White 565
U.S. Black 502
U.S. Hispanic 517
Sweden 561
Netherlands 554
England 553
Bulgaria 550
Latvia 545
Canada (O, Q) 544
Lithuania 543
Hungary 543
United States 542
Italy 541
Germany 539
Czech Republic 537
New Zealand 529
Scotland 528
Singapore 528
Russian Federation 528
Hong Kong, SAR 528
France 525
Greece 524
Slovak Republic 518
Iceland 512
Romania 512
Israel 509
Slovenia 502
Norway 499
Cyprus 494
Moldova 492
Turkey 449
Macedonia 442
Colombia 422
Argentina 420
Iran 414
Kuwait 396
Morocco 350
Belize 327

International Average 500
Sweden 561
Netherlands 554
England 553
Bulgaria 550
Latvia 545
Canada (O, Q) 544
Lithuania 543
Hungary 543
United States 542
Italy 541
Germany 539
Czech Republic 537
New Zealand 529
Scotland 528
Singapore 528
Russian Federation 528
Hong Kong, SAR 528
France 525
Greece 524
Slovak Republic 518
Iceland 512
Romania 512
Israel 509
Slovenia 502
Norway 499
Cyprus 494
Moldova 492
Turkey 449
Macedonia 442
Colombia 422
Argentina 420
Iran 414
Kuwait 396
Morocco 350
Belize 327

International Average 500
Sweden 561
Netherlands 554
England 553
Bulgaria 550
Latvia 545
Canada (O, Q) 544
Lithuania 543
Hungary 543
United States 542
Italy 541
Germany 539
Czech Republic 537
New Zealand 529
Scotland 528
Singapore 528
Russian Federation 528
Hong Kong, SAR 528
France 525
Greece 524
Slovak Republic 518
Iceland 512
Romania 512
Israel 509
Slovenia 502
Norway 499
Cyprus 494
Moldova 492
Turkey 449
Macedonia 442
Colombia 422
Argentina 420
Iran 414
Kuwait 396
Morocco 350
Belize 327

International Average 500
Average is statistically significantly higher
than the subgroup average Average is not
statistically significantly different from the
subgroup average Average is statistically
significantly lower than the subgroup average
SOURCE International Association for the
Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress
in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS),
2001.
18
INDICATORS OF SOCIAL CONTEXT FOR
EDUCATIONPercent of kindergarteners with two or
more risk factors, by race/ethnicity Fall 1998
The percentage of first-time kindergartners with
two or more risk factors is about five times
greater for Hispanics (33 percent) and four times
greater for Blacks (27 percent) than for their
White peers (6 percent).
Percent
SOURCE U.S Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of
Education, 2000 based on Early Childhood
Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of
1998-99, Fall 1998.
19
INDICATORS OF SCHOOLING CONTEXTS Percent of
elementary/secondary school students in schools
with 50 percent or more minority, by
race/ethnicity Fall 2000
Black and Hispanic students are more likely to
attend schools where minorities comprise the
majority of enrollment. Nearly 80 percent of
Hispanics and 70 percent of Blacks attended
schools were the minority population was more
than 50 percent, compared to 11 percent of
Whites.
Percent
SOURCE U.S Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, Status and
Trends in the Education of Hispanics based on
unpublished data from the Common Core of Data,
2000-01.
20
INDICATORS OF SCHOOLING CONTEXTS Percent of 4th
grade students in schools where 50 percent or
more of students are low-income, by
race/ethnicity 2000
Nearly 60 percent of Hispanics and American
Indian/Alaska Native students, and over 70
percent of Blacks attended schools where 50
percent or more of the student population was low
income. By comparison, some 20 percent of Whites
attended such schools.
Percent
SOURCE U.S Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, Status and
Trends in the Education of Hispanics based on
National Assessment of Educational Progress
(NAEP), 2000 Reading Assessment.
21
INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Percent
of secondary school dropouts among persons 16 to
24 years old, by race/ethnicity 1970 to 2001
The proportion of 16-to 24 year olds who had not
completed secondary school declined between 1970
and 2001. The dropout rate for Blacks declined
more rapidly than the rate for Whites, from 19
percent in 1980 to 11 percent in 2001.
Percent
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, Digest of
Education Statistics, 2001.
22
INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Percentage
of 25- to 29-year-olds with a university or
higher degree (ISCED 5A or 6) or higher, by
race/ethnicity March 1971 to 2001
Although the percentage of young adults with a
university or higher degree increased for all
three racial/ethnic groups, the Black and
Hispanic gaps with Whites widened slightly.
Percent
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of
Education 2002.
23
INDICATORS OF SOCIAL CONTEXTS FOR
EDUCATIONVoting rates for persons 18 years old
and over, by race/ethnicity and highest level of
education completed November 2000
While higher educational attainment is associated
with higher voting rates, Hispanics report lower
rates than those for Whites and Blacks at each
level.
Percent
SOURCE U.S Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, Status and
Trends in the Education of Hispanics based on
U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau,
Reported Voting and Registration, by Race,
Hispanic Origin, Sex, and Educational Attainment
November 2000. Table 6, based on Current
Population Survey, November 2000 supplement.
24
CURRENT POLICY USESNo Child Left Behind
  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was created in
    response to underachieving students, schools, and
    school districts. It requires state testing for
    all students in grades 3-8. Disaggregated scores
    by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and
    disability status will provide information about
    specific subgroup achievement levels.
  • The law holds schools accountable for student
    achievement and requires academic progress for
    every subgroup.
  • The precedent for NCLB was set by specific states
    such as Texas, North Carolina, and California
    that implemented accountability systems that
    required achievement gains for all subgroups.

25
CURRENT POLICY USESTexas school report card
26
CONTACT INFORMATION
  • Val Plisko
  • Associate Commissioner
  • National Center for Education Statistics
  • Institute of Education Sciences
  • U.S. Department of Education
  • 202 502 7434
  • Valena.plisko_at_ed.gov
  • THANK YOU.
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