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Respiratory System

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Respiratory System As always, copy everything in RED and any pictures you are told to. Heart Attack A medical emergency Coronary arteries (supplying heart blood ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Respiratory System


1
Respiratory System
  • As always, copy everything in RED and any
    pictures you are told to.

2
What is Respiration?
  • Cellular respiration producing energy (ATP)
    from the breakdown of molecules in food in the
    presence of oxygen
  • Respiration oxygen and carbon dioxide are
    exchanged between cells, blood, and air in the
    lungs
  • What does CPR stand for?-- cardiopulmonary
    resuscitation (rescue breathing combined with
    chest compressions

3
Human Respiratory System
  • Function exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • Structures
  • Nose filters air as it enters the body
  • Pharynx tube in the back of the mouth (throat)
    passes air and food
  • Larynx voice box vocal cords (two folds of
    elastic tissue)
  • Trachea windpipe
  • Epiglottis covers entrance of trachea when you
    swallow
  • Bronchi large passageways leading air to each
    lung
  • Bronchioles are branches from bronchi in each
    lung
  • Lungs gas exchange
  • Alveoli tiny air sacs clustered at the end of
    the bronchioles and wrapped in capillaries

4
Figure 37-14 The Respiratory System
Section 37-3
Pharynx
Larynx
Nose
Trachea
Mouth
Lung
Bronchiole
Bronchus
Epiglottis
Alveoli
Bronchioles
Diaphragm
Capillaries
Edge of pleural membrane
5
Gas Exchange
  • 350 million alveoli in a healthy lung
  • Increase surface area for gas exchange across
    capillaries
  • Oxygen in alveoli diffuses across capillaries
    into blood
  • Carbon dioxide in blood diffuses across
    capillaries into alveoli
  • Very efficient gas exchange
  • Inhaled air contains 21 oxygen and 0.04 carbon
    dioxide
  • Exhaled air contains 15 oxygen and 4 carbon
    dioxide

6
Figure 37-15 Gas Exchange in the Lungs
Alveoli
Section 37-3
Bronchiole
Capillary
7
Breathing
  • The movement of air into and out of the lungs
  • At the bottom of the chest cavity is a large flat
    muscle diaphragm
  • The lungs are sealed in two sacs pleural
    membranes
  • When you breathe in (inhale), the diaphragm
    contracts and expands the volume of the chest
    cavity, creating a partial vacuum in the pleural
    membranes, allowing atmospheric pressure to fill
    the lungs with air
  • When you breathe out (exhale), the diaphragm
    relaxes and decreases the volume of the chest
    cavity, increasing the pressure in the chest
    cavity and forcing air out of the pleural
    membranes

8
Figure 37-16 The Mechanics of Breathing
Section 37-3
Air exhaled
Air inhaled
Rib cage descends
Rib cage rises
Diaphragm
Diaphragm
Inhalation
Exhalation
9
How breathing is controlled
  • Although you can voluntarily hold your breath,
    eventually your body will force you to breathe
  • Breathing is controlled in the medulla oblongata
    in the brain, which is part of the autonomic
    nervous system
  • Cells monitor the amount of carbon dioxide in the
    blood and as it increases, nerve impulses cause
    the diaphragm to contract bringing air into the
    lungs

10
Tobacco creates problems
  • Smoking tobacco damages and eventually destroys
    the protective system by paralyzing cilia and
    trapping mucus in airways
  • Tobacco contains
  • Nicotine addictive, stimulate drug that
    increases the heart rate and blood pressure
  • Carbon monoxide poisonous gas that blocks the
    transport of oxygen by hemoglobin in the blood
  • Tar carcinogen (causes cancer)

11
Respiratory diseases caused by smoking
  • Chronic bronchitis bronchi become swollen and
    clogged with mucus, so constant coughing to try
    and force the particles out
  • Emphysema respiratory disease due to loss of
    elasticity of lung tissue making breathing very
    difficult
  • Lung cancer deadly because it spreads to other
    parts of body
  • Heart disease narrowing of blood vessels
    increases blood pressure and makes the heart work
    harder

12
Circulatory System
13
Circulation and Respiration
  • Each breath brings oxygen rich air into your body
  • Your cells need that oxygen
  • Your heart delivers oxygen to your cells
  • Working together, your circulatory and
    respiratory systems supply cells throughout the
    body with the nutrients and oxygen that they need
    to stay alive!

14
Function
  • The circulatory system transports substances
    including oxygen, nutrients and wastes to and
    from cells responding to changing demands by
    diffusion (from high to low concentration along
    concentration gradient).

15
Structure
  • Humans have a closed circulatory system.
  • Blood is pumped through a system of vessels
  • (In an open system, blood flows in vessels and
    sinuses/gills)
  • Sometimes the circulatory system is also called
    the cardiovascular system because
  • Cardio heart
  • Vascular vessels
  • The human circulatory system consists of
  • The heart
  • A series of blood vessels
  • Blood that flows through them

16
The Heart
  • Located near the center of your chest
  • A hollow organ about the size of your fist
    composed of cardiac muscle.
  • Enclosed in a protective sac of tissue called the
    pericardium
  • Inside there are two thin layers of epithelial
    and connective tissue
  • Contractions of the myocardium, a thick cardiac
    muscle, pump blood through the circulatory system
  • The heart contracts about 72 times a minute
  • Each contraction pumps about 70 mL of blood

17
Heart
  • Septum, or wall, separates the right side from
    the left side preventing mixing of oxygen-rich
    blood and oxygen-poor blood
  • Flaps of connective tissue called valves divide
    each side into 2 chambers totaling 4 chambers
  • Upper chambers receive blood atrium
  • Lower chambers pump blood out of heart ventricle

18
Types of Circulation
  • Pulmonary circulation from right side of the
    heart to lungs where carbon dioxide leaves the
    blood and oxygen is absorbed
  • Systemic circulation from left side of the
    heart to organs
  • Coronary circulation through heart tissue

19
Pulmonary Circulation
  • The right side of the heart pumps blood from the
    heart to the lungs
  • In the lungs, carbon dioxide leaves the blood
    while oxygen is absorbed.
  • The oxygen-rich blood goes into the left side of
    the heart

20
Systemic Circulation
  • The oxygen-rich blood from the left side of the
    heart is pumped to the rest of the body
  • Oxygen-poor blood returns to the right side of
    the heart
  • This blood is oxygen-poor because the cells
    absorbed the oxygen and released carbon dioxide
    into the blood
  • The oxygen-poor blood is ready for another trip
    to the lungs to get oxygen again

21
(No Transcript)
22
Figure 37-2 The Circulatory System
Section 37-1
23
Blood Flow through the heart
  • Blood leaves the heart in arteries, and blood
    returns to heart in veins.
  • Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs through
    the pulmonary veins to the left atrium.
  • Oxygenated blood is pumped from the left atrium
    through the mitral valve to the left ventricle.
  • Oxygenated blood leaves the left ventricle
    through the aortic valve to the aorta, which is
    the largest artery of your body.
  • The aorta branches into various arteries pumping
    blood through your body.
  • Deoxygenated blood returns from the top of your
    body through the superior vena cava and from the
    bottom of your body through the inferior vena
    cava to the right atrium.
  • Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right
    atrium through the tricuspid valve to the right
    ventricle.
  • Deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle
    through the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary
    arteries.
  • The pulmonary arteries pump blood to the lungs to
    absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

Heart circulation animation http//www.nhlbi.nih.
gov/health/dci/Diseases/hhw/hhw_pumping.html
24
The Path of Blood KNOW THIS!!!
25
Valves
  • Blood enters into the atria of the heart,
    separated from the ventricles by valves,
    preventing back-flow of blood keeping the blood
    flowing in one direction
  • When the atria contract, the valves open and
    blood flows into the ventricles
  • When the ventricles contract, the valves close
    preventing blood from flowing back into the atria
    and blood flows out of the heart
  • At the exits of the ventricles, there are valves
    that prevent blood from flowing back into the
    heart
  • The lub-dup sound of your heart is caused by
    the closing of the hearts valves. The lub is
    when the ventricles contract and blood being
    forced against the artioventricular or A-V
    (tricuspid or mitral) valves. The dup is the
    blood being forced against the semilunar (aortic
    or pulmonary) valves.

26
Figure 37-3 The Structures of the Heart
Section 37-1
Left Atrium
Right Atrium
Left Ventricle
Septum
Right Ventricle
27
Heartbeat
  • There are two muscle contractions in the heart
  • The atria
  • The ventricles
  • Each contraction begins in a small group of
    cardiac muscle cells in the right atrium that
    stimulate the rest of the muscle cells
    sinoatrial node (SA node)
  • Since the sinoatrial node sets the pace for the
    heart it is also called the pacemaker
  • The impulse spreads from the pacemaker through
    fibers in the atria to the atrioventricular node
    (AV node) and through fibers in the ventricles
  • When the atria contract, blood flows into the
    ventricles
  • When the ventricle contract, blood flows out of
    the heart

28
Blood vessels
  • Blood circulates in one direction and it is moved
    by the pumping of the heart
  • As blood flows through the circulatory system, it
    moves through three types of blood vessels
  • Arteries
  • Capillaries
  • Veins

29
Arteries
  • Large vessels that carry blood away from the
    heart to tissues of the body
  • Except for the pulmonary arteries, all arteries
    carry oxygen-rich blood.
  • Arteries have thick walls of elastic connective
    tissue, contractible smooth muscle, and
    epithelial cells that help them withstand the
    powerful pressure produced when the heart
    contracts and pushes blood into the arteries.

30
Capillaries
  • The smallest of the blood vessels connecting
    arteries and veins
  • Walls are one cell thick allowing for easier
    diffusion of nutrients and oxygen from
    capillaries to body cells and wastes and carbon
    dioxide from body cells to capillaries

31
Veins
  • Return blood to the heart
  • Veins have walls of connective tissue and smooth
    muscle
  • Large veins contain valves that keep blood
    flowing towards the heart
  • Many veins are located near skeletal muscles, so
    when the muscles contract, they help force blood
    through the veins, even against gravity
  • Exercise helps prevent accumulation of blood in
    limbs and stretching veins out of shape

32
Blood Pressure
  • The heart produces pressure when it contracts.
  • The force of blood on the arteries walls blood
    pressure
  • Blood pressure decreases when the heart relaxes,
    but there must always be some pressure to keep
    the blood flowing
  • Doctors measure blood pressure with a
    sphygmomanometer recording two numbers
  • Systolic pressure force felt in arteries when
    ventricles contract
  • Diastolic pressure force of blood felt in
    arteries when ventricles relax
  • Average adults blood pressure 120/80

33
High Blood Pressure
  • Also known as Hypertension
  • Forces heart to work harder, which may weaken or
    damage the heart muscle and vessels
  • More likely to develop heart disease and
    increased risk of heart attack and stroke

34
Heart Attack
  • A medical emergency
  • Coronary arteries (supplying heart blood) bring
    oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle itself
  • Blockage of coronary artery may damage or kill
    part of heart muscle (myocardium) due to lack of
    oxygen heart attack
  • Symptoms include chest pain/pressure, feeling of
    heartburn/indigestion, sudden dizziness, or brief
    loss of consciousness

35
Stroke
  • Blood clots may break free from vessels and get
    stuck in a blood vessel leading to a part of the
    brain stroke
  • Brain cells relying on that vessel may begin to
    die from lack of oxygen and brain function in
    that region may be lost
  • Strokes can also occur when a weakened artery in
    the brain burst, flooding the area with blood

36
Prevention
  • Cardiovascular diseases are easy to prevent
  • Exercise increases respiratory systems
    efficiency
  • Weight control reduces body fat and stress
  • Sensible diet low in saturated fat reduces risk
    of heart disease
  • Not smoking reduces risk of heart disease
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