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Christopher Columbus

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Title: Christopher Columbus


1
Christopher Columbus
  • Birth of the Atlantic world

2
Questions that we will answer
  • What is known about the early life of Christopher
    Columbus?
  • What events occurred on Columbuss expeditions?
  • Describe the debate concerning the impact of
    Columbuss voyages.

3
Christopher Columbus
  • Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, in
    1451. His father was a merchant. His mother was
    the daughter of a wool weaver.
  • After spending some time as a mapmaker and a
    trader, he traveled to Portugal for navigator
    training.

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Christopher Columbus
  • He honed his navigational skills on journeys to
    Iceland, Ireland, and West Africa.
  • Columbus was ambitious and stubborn. He was
    highly religious and believed that God had given
    him a heroic mission to seek a westward sea
    route to the Indies, meaning China, India, and
    other Asian lands.

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The Daring Expedition
  • In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of
    Spain granted Columbus the title of noble and
    agreed to sponsor his journey. Spanish nobles and
    clergy wanted his mission to succeed for several
    reasons

8
The Daring Expedition
  • The people of any new non-Christian lands would
    be ripe for conversion to Catholicism.
  • Wealthy merchants and royalty wanted a direct
    trade route that bypassed the existing
    Muslim-controlled routes.
  • An easier western route to Asia would give
    Spanish traders an advantage over Portuguese
    traders.

9
The Daring Expedition
  • In 1492, Columbus set off with three ships, the
    Niña, Pinta, and Santa María. He had
    underestimated the distance of his journey. Two
    months after setting sail, he and his crew landed
    in the Bahamas, instead of Asia.

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11
Chinese
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The Daring Expedition
  • The Native Americans welcomed Columbus and gave
    him gifts parrots, cotton thread, and spears
    tipped with fish teeth.
  • Columbus traveled to other islands and collected
    more giftsoften by forceincluding Native
    Americans, to present to the rulers of Spain.
  • Columbus returned to Spain and was awarded the
    governorship of the present-day island of
    Hispaniola in the Caribbean.

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The Daring Expedition
  • Columbus made four more trips to the Americas.
    When Spanish settlers complained about his
    governing of Hispaniola, Columbus lost his
    position.
  • He died in 1506, never accepting that he had
    discovered a new continent.

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Columbus Impact
  • The Colombian Exchange
  • Columbuss journeys launched a new era of
    transatlantic trade.
  • The Colombian Exchange allowed Europeans and
    Native Americans to exchange goods, weapons, and
    culture. Unfortunately, Native Americans became
    exposed to Europes most deadly diseases they
    had no resistance to these germs, and many
    perished.
  • Cultural Code Switching

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Columbus Impact
  • Treaty of Tordesillas
  • European Catholics believed that the Pope had the
    authority to divide up any newly conquered
    non-Christian lands. In 1494, Portugal and Spain
    signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, under which the
    two countries divided all lands on Earth not
    already claimed by other Christians.

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Africans Enslaved
  • Portugal and Spain established plantations or
    large farming operations that produced crops for
    sale. Such crops are called cash crops. The
    plantations supplied the American foods, such as
    sugar and pineapple, that Europeans demanded.
    Crops only for the use of sale.
  • At first, Native Americans were kidnapped and
    forced to work the plantations. But their lack of
    resistance to many European diseases made them an
    unreliable work force. As a result, Europeans
    began bringing enslaved Africans to the Americas.

29
Small Pox
  • In the 1500's, when people from Europe first
    began to go to South America, they brought a man
    from Africa (as a slave) who had smallpox with
    them, and some of the people who lived in South
    America caught it. None of these people were
    immune, and within a few years about 60-90
    percent of the people died (that's six to nine
    out of every ten people!). Soon people in North
    America caught smallpox too, and most of them
    also died. Nearly the entire population of North
    and South America died of either smallpox or
    measles.

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Africans Enslaved
  • Europeans regarded slaves as property, and as
    such, many slaves were mistreated.
  • Estimates of the total number of West Africans
    abducted and taken to North and South America
    range from about 9 million to more than 11
    million.

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??????????????
  • The Columbian Exchange involved trade between
    what two regions?
  • (A) Europe and Australia
  • (B) Asia and the Americas
  • (C) Europe and the Americas
  • (D) Europe and Asia
  • In 1494, Spain and Portugal signed this treaty
    that divided all lands on Earth not already
    claimed by other Christians
  • (A) The Columbian Treaty
  • (B) The Treaty of Versailles
  • (C) The Magna Carta
  • (D) The Treaty of Tordesillas

36
??????????????
  • The Columbian Exchange involved trade between
    what two regions?
  • (A) Europe and Australia
  • (B) Asia and the Americas
  • (C) Europe and the Americas
  • (D) Europe and Asia
  • In 1494, Spain and Portugal signed this treaty
    that divided all lands on Earth not already
    claimed by other Christians
  • (A) The Columbian Treaty
  • (B) The Treaty of Versailles
  • (C) The Magna Carta
  • (D) The Treaty of Tordesillas

37
  • Video and Activity

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