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About OMICS Group

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Title: About OMICS Group


1
About OMICS Group
  • OMICS Group International is an amalgamation
    of OpenAccess publications and worldwide
    international science conferences and events.
    Established in the year 2007 with the sole aim of
    making the information on Sciences and technology
    Open Access, OMICS Group publishes 400 online
    open access scholarly journals in all aspects of
    Science, Engineering, Management and Technology
    journals. OMICS Group has been instrumental in
    taking the knowledge on Science technology to
    the doorsteps of ordinary men and women. Research
    Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational
    Institutions, Research centers and the industry
    are main stakeholders that benefitted greatly
    from this knowledge dissemination. OMICS Group
    also organizes 300 International
    conferences annually across the globe, where
    knowledge transfer takes place through debates,
    round table discussions, poster presentations,
    workshops, symposia and exhibitions.

2
About OMICS Group Conferences
  • OMICS Group International is a pioneer and
    leading science event organizer, which publishes
    around 400 open access journals and conducts over
    300 Medical, Clinical, Engineering, Life
    Sciences, Phrama scientific conferences all over
    the globe annually with the support of more than
    1000 scientific associations and 30,000 editorial
    board members and 3.5 million followers to its
    credit.
  • OMICS Group has organized 500 conferences,
    workshops and national symposiums across the
    major cities including San Francisco, Las Vegas,
    San Antonio, Omaha, Orlando, Raleigh, Santa
    Clara, Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, United
    Kingdom, Valencia, Dubai, Beijing, Hyderabad,
    Bengaluru and Mumbai.

3
The Value of Dereplications in Understanding the
Worth of Traditional Pharmacopeias 2014.
AJTCAM (2011) 8(S)13-26 J Ethnopharmacology
(2012) 140(3).
  • Memory Elvin-Lewis, Ph.D., D.Sc.
  • Professor of Biomedicine in Microbiology and
    Ethnobotany
  • Adjunct Professor of Biology
  • Washington University, St. Louis, MO
  • elvin_at_biology.wustl.edu

4
Where can ethnomedical information be found?
  • Where primary data is still available among
    populations where knowledge remains as exclusive
    know-how and must be protected to ensure optimal
    benefit.
  • From secondary sources in the public domain.

5
What is an herbal remedy/ botanical?
  • Traditional or serendipitous
  • Varies in formulation preparation
  • Unreliable as to plant identification
  • Not medically validated as to efficacy
  • Varies in dosage and treatment regimens
  • Potency and toxicity frequently moderate
  • May contain many ubiquitous bioreactive compounds
  • If one plant may be evolved through
    chemo-fingerprinting into a standardized
    phytopharmaceutical
  • Few medicinal plants possess a compound unique
    and potent enough to merit pharmaceutical
    development.

6
The value of medical primary ethnobotanical data
  • Depends upon the expertise of those collecting
    the information?
  • With sufficient knowledge of the regional flora,
    local languages medical systems?
  • With an understanding of the nature and
    epidemiology of important regional diseases?
  • With the ability to review available secondary
    data to help them identify the uniqueness of the
    information they are collecting?
  • With an understanding that ethical issues related
    to protecting traditional knowledge, benefit
    sharing and national genetic resources must be
    considered.
  • According to the recently evolved Nagoya
    protocol in 2010 eliciting prior informed consent
    and obtaining consensus on access to benefits
    resulting from subsequent use is now
    international law. Its objective is to ensure the
    fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising
    from the utilization of genetic resources,
    thereby contributing to the conservation and
    sustainable use of biodiversity. It is an
    extension of the Convention of Biodiversity
    Treaty of 1992. Unlike the vast majority of
    nations the US has ratified but not as yet signed
    this treaty.

7
Critical Data Required
  • Botanical
  • Vouchered specimens for appropriate botanical
    identification
  • Details of how the plants are collected,
    appropriately processed or used.
  • Information on the nature of the remedy, if
    plants are used alone, sequentially or as a mixed
    formulation.
  • What are favored substitutions and why.
  • Medical
  • If there are preferences of one plant remedy over
    another
  • What are the parameters of safety and efficacy
  • Which remedies, pivotal to the health and well
    being of the population serve the needs of
    treating diseases of local or regional
    importance.
  • Utilization of secondary data
  • To determine any novelty of these data
  • To prevent duplication of studies already
    conducted

8
Is the investigation of a pharmacopeia justified
from what is already known?
  • Is there a local, regional, global need?
  • Does anecdotal information suggest that there are
    remedies worthy of study? Might they be
    exclusive?
  • Is there scientific evidence to suggest that
    regional plants have a therapeutic potential?
  • Have therapeutic agents already been derived from
    local taxa?

9
What methods in the field and laboratory can
further optimize a pharmacopeias therapeutic
value
  • Ethnomedical focusing popularity in regional or
    cosmopolitan sense, provides safety and efficacy
    clues which can be affirmed by identifying
    specific bioreactivies and conducting appropriate
    allopathic verifications.
  • Conventional medical verification in the context
    of use can identify the parameters of use as well
    as the appropriate formulation when taken as a
    botanical.
  • By their Phylogenetic amplification related
    plant taxa, disease entities and/or their
    etiological taxa can share common denominators
    related to bioreactive composition or drug
    sensitivities.

10
Types of Dereplication DatabasesFree and For Fee
  • Ethnobotanical
  • Botanical
  • Biomedical/Pharmacognosy
  • Clinical Studies
  • Chemical and Patent

11
What are secondary sources of botanically derived
ethnomedical data?
  • Herbals, floras, pharmacopoeias, herbarium
    sheets, theses, dissertations, books, published
    pamphlets, poster presentations, verbal
    presentations, electronic data bases, internet
    sources etc.
  • Information in local languages can limit its
    access.
  • Indexing of some of this information may be
    lacking.

12
Value of Ethnobotanical/Ethnomedical Databases
  • For identifying a remedys
  • Possible ethnic specificity
  • Derivation local, regional or widespread
  • Formula variability
  • If used as one plant or in a mixture
  • If used for one purpose or many
  • Clues to its medicinal value.
  • Worthiness for further investigations?
  • For identifying alternate sourcing of bioreactive
    molecules by finding related taxa with similar
    medicinal uses worldwide e.g., Taxus brevifolia
    for paclitaxel (taxol) and related baccitins from
    T. walachiana and T. baccata.
  • Identifying related taxa used to treat diseases
    caused by related etiological agents e.g.,
    malaria and apicoplexan protozoa causing
    AIDS-associated diseases such as Cryptosporidium.

13
Ethnobotanical Data BasesNingthoujam et al,
2012. Review. Challenges in developing medicinal
plant databases for sharing ethnopharmacological
knowledge. J. Ethnopharmacology. 141 9-32
  • Free
  • Worldwide EthnobotDB, ETHMED, HERBMED, Plants
    for a future, SEPASAL
  • Regional SW and SE U.S.A., Peruvian Amazon,
    Africa (Prelude, PROTA), SE Asia, USDA Plants
    Database.
  • National Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh,
    Brazil, Brunei Dusan, Belgium, Canada, China,
    Denmark, England, Estonia, France, Germany,
    Hawaii, India, Indonesia, Japan, Latin America
    and the Caribbean, Madagascar, Malaysia, Malta,
    Myanmar, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, The
    Netherlands, Samoa, Singapore, South Africa,
    South Korea, Spain, Russia, Thailand, Tibet,
    Turkey, USA.
  • Ethnic Groups Australian Aboriginal, Canada-
    Gwichin, First Nations, Maya, Quijos-Quichua,
    Moari-Nga Tipu Whakaoranga, Oceania- Bishop
    Museum Hawaii.
  • US. Government ARICOLA, IBIDS, USPTO, Dukes
    phytochemical and ethnobotanical database
  • American Academy of Science TEKPAD
  • For Fee, Membership, ebooks and CD Rom
  • Regional Africa (AHA), Asia Pacific (AHEAD),
    Caribbean Latin America (TRAMIL), France
    (PASCAL, PLANTES MEDICINALES), Korea (TRADIMED),
    United Kingdom (CABI medicinal plant, Hom-Inform,
    Green Medicine (Chinese Herbal Medicine), USA
    (HerbMedPro, Biosis Previews, MANTIS, HERBALIST,
    TCM Pharmacology).

14
Chinese Data Bases TCMBarlow et al. 2012.
In-silico studies in Chinese herbal medicines
research Evaluation of in-silico methodologies
and phytochemical data sources, and a review of
research to date. J. Ethnopharmacology 140
520-534 Tai-Ping et al., 2012. Future
Development of global regulations of Chinese
herbal products. J. Ethnopharmacology
140(3)56-586 Ouedraogo,M. et al. 2012. Review of
current and omics methods for assessing the
toxicity, teratogenicity and nephrotoxicity of
herbal medicines and mushrooms. 140(3) 49-512
Buriani A et al., 2012. Omic techniques in
systems biology approaches to traditional Chinese
medicine researc Present and future. J.
Ethnophamracology 140(3) 53-544 Pelkonen O et
al., 2012. Omics and its potential impact on RD
and regulation of complex herbal products. J.
Ethnopharmacologyh 140 (3) 58-593
  • TCM Database_at_Taiwan
    http//tcm.cmu.edu.tw/review.php?menuid3
  • China Natural Products Data Base (CNPD)
    htpp//www.neotrident.com
  • 3D Structure Database of Components
  • from Chinese Herbs.
  • Comprehensive Herbal Medicine Information
    http//sw16.im.med.umich.edu/chmis-c/
  • System for Cancer (CHMIS-C)
  • Chinese herbal constituents database
    http//www.chemtcm.com/(CHCD) and Bioactive
    compounds (BPCD)
  • Dictionary of Chinese Herbs
    http//Alaternativehealing.org/Chinese.he
    rbs.

  • dictionary. Htm
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine Information
    http//tcm.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/tcmid/tcmid.asp
  • Database (TCM-ID)
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated
    http//www.mgegbionet.org/tcmid/
  • Database
  • TCMGeneDIT
    http//tcm.lifescience.ntu.edu.tw/
  • TCM Knowledge Based Grid (Tibet)
    http//.www.cintem.com
  • PhytochemDB
    http//ukcrop.net/perl/ace/search/P
    hytochemDB

15
Botanical Dereplication
  • Understanding the nature of a traditional
    pharmacopeias through access to professional
    resources
  • Identifying known and related taxa and their
    correct names.
  • Appreciating their distribution patterns.
  • Identifying unknown taxa and having these
    determined by experts knowledgeable of the family
    and/or genus.

16
Botanical Databases and Other Sources
  • Reference to professional botanical literature
    for relevant check lists, floras, and monographs
    can provide baseline data.
  • Reference to local or national herbaria is
    essential to understanding the distribution of
    taxa within a nation and adjacent countries.
  • Large herbaria of about 5-9 million collections
    have comprehensive worldwide and specialty
    collections
  • Conservatoaire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville
    de Genève (Switzerland).
  • Harvard University Herbaria (Cambridge Mass.,
    USA)
  • Komarov Herbarium (St Petersburg, Russia)
  • Missouri Botanical Garden Tropicos (St. Louis,
    MO, USA)
  • Muséum National dHistoire Naturelle (Paris,
    France)
  • Nationaal Herbarium Nederland (Leiden, The
    Netherlands)
  • National History Museum (London, England)
  • NY Botanic Gardens CV Starr Virtual Herbarium
    (New York City, NY, USA).
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (London, England)
  • Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
    (Washington, DC, (USA)
  • Reference to the International Plant Names Index
    (www.ipni.org/)

17
Pharmacognosy and Biomedical Dereplications
  • Identifying bioreactive phytochemicals
  • Depends upon biodirected isolation techniques
    used.
  • Broad screening assays, using functional screens
    are unlikely to provide as many bioreactive
    compounds as those identified from ethnomedically
    targeted plants matched to specific mechanistic
    assays.
  • Compounds may be novel or ubiquitous, complex or
    simple, have single activity or multiple
    activities.
  • May represent a family of related bioreactive
    compounds or isomers.
  • Identifying additional studies associated with
    range of bioreactivity potentials.
  • Identifying related semi-synthetic molecules with
    improved solubility, lowered toxicity, increased
    efficacy and/or additional medicinal uses.

18
Major Website/URL Addresses on Biomedical/Pharmaco
gnosy Subjects.
  • Free
  • NIH Pubmed 1959-present over 24 million
    references from 5,000 journals, Pubchem
    structure search
  • Pharmacognosy network Caspur, DOAJ, google
    Scholar, Indix Copernicus, OpenJGate, Primo
    Central,SCOLAR, SIIC, Summon by Serial Solutions,
    Ulrichs International Periodical Directory,
    Dictionary of Natural Products, NuBBEdb (Brazil).
  • Unpublished theses and dissertations on
    pharmacognosy
  • By subscription but free to users
  • EBSCO, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE over 28 million
    citations, Natural Standard ProQuest, Reaxys
    Medicinal Chemistry, PharmaPendium, SCOPUS, Web
    of Science / Web of Knowledge.
  • For Fee
  • Qigong Database
  • NAtural PRoducts ALERT (NAPRALERT)

19
TargetingSheridan et al., 2012. The potential
of metabolic fingerprinting as a tool for the
modernisation of TCM preparations. J.
Ethnopharmacology 140(3) 48-91
  • Therapeutic Target Database (TTD)
    http//xin.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/ttd/ttd.asp
  • Potential Drug Target Database(PDTD)
  • http//www.dddc.ac.cn/pdtd/
  • Protein Data Bank
  • http//www.rcsb.org/pdb
  • Metabolite-Plant Species Database
  • KNApSAcK
  • Metabolomics Japan Wiki with Kampo Medicine
    http//metabolomics.jp/wiki/Main_Page

20
Clinical Aspects Free URL or Website Addresses
  • CUGH (Consortium of Universities for Global
    Health )
  • CenterWatch (Global Search for Clinical Trials
    Information)
  • Cochran Library Central Collaboration (An
    international network of more than 28,000
    dedicated people from over 100 countries who
    utilize the best available research evidence to
    prepare, update and promote the Cochran Reviews
    so as to help health care providers,
    policy-makers, patients, their advocates and
    care-givers to make well-informed decisions about
    health care).
  • Cochran CAM Field (Focusing on Complementary
    Medicine)
  • U.S. Government
  • NCCAM (National Center for Complementary and
    Alternative Medicine)
  • CRISP (Computer Retrieval of Information on
    Scientific Projects funded by NIH)
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine worlds
    largest medical library)
  • FDA Poisonous Plant Database
  • PUBMED (Biomedical Literature from Medline)
  • TOXNET (Environmental Health Toxicology)
  • ClinVar, MedGen ( National Center for
    Biotechnology Information)
  • OMIM (Mendilian Inheritance in Man)
  • United Kingdom
  • Bandolier (Evidence-based Thinking about Health
    Care- Research Clinical Trials)
  • CISCOM (Centralized Information Service for
    Complementary Medicine-Therapies and Clinical
    Trials)
  • Germany
  • DATADIWAN (Holistic Medicine and Frontier
    Sciences-Patient Information for Natural
    Therapies)

21
Clinical Studies For Fee or CD-ROM
  • ACUBSE Bibliothèque Univesitatire de Médicine de
    Nimes (17,000 French, English and TCM
    references).
  • AltHealthWatch of EBSCO
  • AMED (British Library Health Care Information
    Service Allied and Complementary Medicine Data
    Base
  • Natural Standard
  • Poisonous Plants in Britain and Ireland (CD-ROM)

22
Bioreactive Compounds in Medicinal Plants
  • Can vary in both quantity and quality depending
    on
  • chemotype
  • environmental factors (soil, climate, etc.)
  • plant part
  • methods of collection
  • preparation
  • storage.

23
Chemical and Patent Databases
  • Supernatural a searchable database of available
    natural compounds
  • Chapman and Hall/CRC Chemical Database
    represents the complete text of several chemical
    dictionaries from Chapman and Hall. CHCD is a
    source database of chemical identification,
    physical-chemical properties, use, hazard, and
    key reference data to the world's more important
    chemical substances
  • ChemnetBase a structured database holding
    information on chemical substances.
  • STNCAS' STN databases offer the largest
    collection and depth of chemical and related
    information compared to other commercial web
    based databases. In addition, CAS is the only
    company that has a unique, proprietary, chemical
    structure searching capability using its STN
    Express software. No other source can
    successfully meet the United States Patent and
    Trademark Office requirements.
  • BNPD (Bioactive Natural Products Database) A
    free comprehensive database on natural products
  • WIPO Provides access to online intellectual
    property databases hosted by the World
    Intellectual Property Organization and member
    states.
  • WTMPO World Traditional Natural Medicine Patent
    Database
  • China TCM Patent Database Covers bibliographic
    data related to TCM 1985-present

24
Conclusions
  • Numerous data bases are available to adequately
    understand a pharmacopeias worth in terms of
  • The degree of its exclusivity in terms of
    traditional knowledge, the plants that are used
    and the bioreactive compounds which have been
    found.
  • The distribution of these medicinal plants
    regionally and worldwide.
  • By applying techniques of phylogenetic
    amplification to satisfy sourcing needs of a
    particular compound or its allies, or by
    identifying new target diseases with cross
    sensitivities
  • Through appropriate clinical evaluations the
    therapeutic potential as botanicals.
  • The identification of bioreactive compounds,
    their relationship to others known to nature or
    chemically derived.
  • Their therapeutic potential as phytopharmaceutical
    s or pharmaceuticals.
  • Knowledge of how these have been incorporated
    into various forms of patents.
  • How new technologies like omics and in silico
    can be applied to understanding the safety and
    worth of polyherbal remedies.

25
With Thanks
  • With the context of the original 2011 article
  • Dr. Walter Lewis for providing unpublished
    preliminary data elicited in our laboratories.
  • To the NIAID Screening Labs
  • John Gerin Viral hepatitis, Georgetown
    University
  • Saul Pzipori Cryptosporidium, Tufts
  • Fausto Araui Toxoplasma, Palo Alto Medical
    Foundation
  • Dr. J. Cardellina NCI-AIDS, Fort Dietrick
  • Drs. Edward Kennelly, Lehman College SUNY Steve
    Caspar, FDA Robert McGill, Missouri Botanical
    Garden for providing valuable insights in the
    evolution of the paper.
  • To Washington University Librarians, 2014
  • Angela Hardia, Clinical Resources Librarian, WUSM
  • Lauren Todd, Engineering Subject Librarian in the
    Department of Chemistry

26
Let Us Meet Again
  • We welcome you all to our future conferences of
    OMICS Group International
  • Please Visitwww.omicsgroup.com
  • www.conferenceseries.com
  • www.pharmaceuticalconferences.com
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