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Cells and Heredity

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Title: Cells and Heredity


1
Cells and Heredity
  • Chapter 1 Cell Structure and Function.
  • Section 1-Discovering Cells

2
  • Section 1 Discovering Cells Objectives-
  • Explain how the invention of the microscope
    contributed to the scientists understanding of
    living things
  • State the three points of cell theory
  • Describe how a microscope works, including how a
    lenses magnifies an object.

3
Vocabulary
  • 1. cell The basic unit of structure and function
    in living things.

4
  • 2. microscope An instrument that makes small
    objects look larger.

5
  • 3. compound microscope A light microscope that
    has more than one lens.

6
  • 4. cell theory A widely accepted explanation of
    the relationship between cells and living things.

7
  • 5. magnification The ability to make things look
    larger than they are.

8
  • 6. convex lens A curved lens in which the center
    is thicker than the edges.

9
  • 7. resolution The ability to clearly distinguish
    the individual parts of an object.

10
Notes
  • 1. The invention of the __________________ made
    it possible for people to discover and learn
  • about ________.

microscope
cells
11
Names to know
  • Robert Hooke. 1663. One of the first people to
    observe cells. He observed a thin slice of cork
    using a compound microscope that he built
    himself.
  • The cork looked like tiny rectangular rooms,
    which he called cells.

12
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (around the same time that
    Hooke made his discovery)
  • Observed tiny objects with microscopes.
  • He made his own lenses to construct simple
    microscopes
  • He looked at water from a pond and saw one-celled
    organisms that he called animalcules, meaning
    little animals

13
  • Matthais Schleiden (1838) German scientist
    concluded that all plants are made of cells.
  • Theodor Schwann (1839)-German scientist that
    concluded that animals are made of cells.

14
  • Up until this time, people did not understand
    where cells came from.
  • Most people thought that living things could come
    from non living matter.
  • German Doctor Rudolf Virchow proposed that cells
    are only formed from existing cells.

15
The observations of Hooke, Leeuwenhoek,
Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, and others let to
the development of the Cell Theory.
  • 2. The cell theory states
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.

All living things are composed of cells
Cells are the basic unit of structure and
function in living things.
All cells are produced from other cells
16
  • 3. A microscope magnifies an object by
  • _______________________________

Bending the light that passes through them.
17
convex
  • 4. A ____________________lens is
  • thicker in the middle than at the edges.

18
resolution
  • 5. ____________________________ is the sharpness
    of an image, while _________________________ is
    making an image appear larger than it really is.

magnification
19
Cells and Heredity
  • Chapter 1 Cell Structure and Function
  • Section 2 Looking Inside Cells

20
  • Section 2-Looking Inside Cells
  • Identify the roll of the cell membrane and
    nucleus in the cell
  • Describe the functions performed by other
    organelles in the cell
  • Compare bacterial cells with plant and animal
    cells
  • Describe the role of specialized cells in many
    celled organisms
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vgFuEo2ccTPA

21
Vocab
  • 8. Organelle A tiny cell structure that carries
    out a specific function within the cell.

22
  • 9. Cell wall A rigid layer of nonliving material
    that surrounds the cells of plants and some other
    organisms.

23
  • 10. cell membrane A cell structure that controls
    which substances can enter or leave the cell.

24
  • 11. nucleus A cell structure that contains
    nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that
    direct all the cells activities.

25
  • 12. chromatin Material in cells that contains
    DNA and carries genetic information.

26
  • 13. cytoplasm The region between the cell
    membrane and the nucleus in organisms without a
    nucleus, the region located inside the cell
    membrane.

27
  • 14. mitochondria Rod-shaped cell structures that
    produce most of the energy needed to carry out
    the cells functions.

28
  • 15. endoplasmic reticulum A cell structure that
    forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and
    other materials are carried from one part of the
    cell to another.

29
  • 16. ribosome A small grain-like structure in the
    cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made.

30
  • 17. Golgi body A structure in a cell that
    receives proteins and other newly formed
    materials from the endoplasmic reticulum,
    packages them, and distributes them to other
    parts of the cell.

31
  • 18. chloroplast A structure in the cells of
    plants and some other organisms that captures
    energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.

32
  • ADD somewhere on vocab page
  • vacuole A water-filled sac inside a cell that
    acts as a storage area.

33
  • 19. lysosome A small round cell structure that
    contains chemicals that break down large food
    particles into smaller ones.

34
Notes
Cell membrane
  • 1. The ______________________ protects the cell
    and controls what substances enter and exit it.

35
nucleus
  • 2. The ______________________ controls all the
    cells activities.

36
  • 3. See pages 26-27 in your Cells and Heredity
    Text. Match the organelle to its City
    Function.
  • 1. Cell Wall _________

H
37
D
  • 2. Cell Membrane ________

38
J
  • 3. nucleus ________

39
F
  • 4. chromatin ________

40
I
  • 5. mitochondria _______

41
C
  • 6. endoplasmic reticulum ___________

42
B
  • 7. ribosomes _________

43
A
  • 8. Golgi Bodies ________

44
G
  • 9. chloroplasts _______

45
K
  • 10. vacuoles ________

46
E
  • 11. lysosomes _______

47
  • 4. The three functions of organelles are
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.

Produce energy
Build and transport needed materials
Store recycle wastes
48
  • 5. Bacterial cells do not contain a
    ______________________.

nucleus
49
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50
Cells and Heredity
  • Chapter 1 Cell Structure and Function
  • Section 3 Chemical Compounds in Cells

51
  • Section 3-Chemical Compounds in Cells
  • Describe the four main kinds of organic molecules
    in living things.
  • Explain how water is important to the functioning
    of cells.

52
  • 20. element Any substance that cannot be broken
    down into simpler substances.

53
  • 21. atom The smallest unit of an element.

54
  • 22. compound Two or more elements that are
    chemically combined.

55
  • 23. molecule The smallest unit of most
    compounds.

56
  • 24. organic compound A compound that contains
    carbon.

57
  • 25. inorganic compound A compound that does not
    contain carbon.

58
  • 26. carbohydrates Energy-rich organic compounds,
    such as sugars and starches, that are made of the
    elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

59
  • 27. proteins Large organic molecules made of
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes
    sulfur.

60
  • 28. amino acids Small molecules that are linked
    together chemically to form proteins.

61
  • 29. enzyme A type of protein that speeds up a
    chemical reaction in a living thing.

62
  • 30. lipids Energy-rich organic compounds, such
    as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of
    carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

63
  • 31. nucleic acid A very large organic molecule
    made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and
    phosphorus, that contains instructions that cells
    need to carry out all the functions of life.

64
  • 32. DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid the genetic
    material that carries information about an
    organism and is passed from parent to offspring.

65
  • 33. RNA Ribonucleic acid a nucleic acid that
    plays an important role in the production of
    proteins.

66
  • 1. Four main groups of organic compounds
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.

carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids
67
  • 2. Two examples of inorganic compounds
  • A.
  • B.

H2O - water
NaCl - Sodium chloride (table salt)
68
  • 3. Plant cells store excess energy in the
  • form of _____________________.

starch
69
  • 4. Proteins are made from the elements
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
  • E.

carbon
hydrogen
oxygen
nitrogen
  • (and sometimes Sulfur)

70
Enzymes
  • 5. ________________in our saliva speed up
    digestion by breaking down
  • _______________ into
  • __________________.

starches
sugars
71
oils
fats
  • 6. __________,__________
  • and __________ are all lipids.

waxes
72
water
  • 7. Without ____________ most
  • ___________ reactions would not take
  • place.

chemical
73
Cells and Heredity
  • Chapter 1 Cell Structure and Function
  • Section 4 The Cell in Its Environment

74
Section 4- Objectives
  • Describe 3 methods in which molecules move in and
    out of cells
  • Compare passive and active transport.

75
  • 34. selectively permeable A property of cell
    membranes that allows some substances to pass
    through, while others cannot.

76
  • 35. diffusion The process by which molecules
    move from an area of higher concentration to an
    area of lower concentration.

77
  • 36. osmosis The diffusion of water molecules
    through a selectively permeable membrane.

78
  • 37. passive transport The movement of materials
    through a cell membrane without using energy.

79
  • 38. active transport The movement of materials
    through a cell membrane using energy.

80
Notes
  • 1. Three ways substances can move into and out of
    cells
  • A._______________
  • B._______________
  • C._______________

diffusion
osmosis
Active transport
81
Active
  • 2. _______________ transport requires energy,
    while ____________transport does not.

Passive
82
Review-Organic Compounds Graphic Organizer
carbohydrates
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
  • E.

proteins
Fats, oils, waxes
sugar
DNA
83
(No Transcript)
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