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History of HIV

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Title: HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Author: amedina13_at_cox.net Last modified by: amedina13_at_cox.net Created Date: 9/28/2008 7:03:05 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of HIV


1
History of HIV
  • First appeared in USA in early 1980s
  • Originated in Africa
  • The HIV virus in humans evolved from a virus in
    these primates
  • 1. Sooty mangabey monkey
  • 2. Chimps
  • The virus is called SIV
  • Simian Immunodeficiency
  • Virus

2
What is HIV?
  • HIV is an RNA virus
  • HIV infects the T cells
  • T cells help fight off infections
  • HIV is a type of Hidden Virus

3
HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • The four major routes of transmission
  • Unprotected sex
  • 2. Contaminated needles
  • 3. Breast milk
  • 4. Transmission from an infected
  • mother to her baby at birth
  • Blood transfusions are not longer a problem
  • HIV destroys a part of the immune system.
  • It affects T-cells which are white
  • blood cells
  • These white blood cells fight
  • viruses, bacteria and help prevent
    diseases.

4
The 4 major routes of transmission of HIV
  • 1. Unprotected sex
  • 2. Contaminated needles
  • 3. Breast milk
  • 4. Transmission from an infected
  • mother to her baby at birth
  • Blood transfusions are not longer a problem

5
AIDS or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • AIDS is the diseases caused by HIV or
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • When too many T cells are destroyed by HIV they
    can no longer fight off infections
  • The individual now has the disease called AIDS
  • Person can have AIDS for years and not know it.
    Why is this
  • dangerous?????
  • Human T lymphocytes
  • (T cells)
  • Magnification 2,600x

6
AIDS and other diseases
  • People with AIDS get other diseases and
    infections
  • 1. Cancer Kaposi's sarcoma
  • 2. Hepatitis C
  • 3. Fungal infections
  • 4. Bacterial infection
  • 5. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma blood cancer
    involving Lymphocytes
  • 6. Lung Cancer
  • 7. Cancer in the digestive tract

7
AIDS PREVALANCE(Who has AIDS)
  • In 2005 Worldwide
  • Close to 40 million people worldwide are infected
  • Almost 4 million people were infected in 2005
  • 65 of AIDS victims live in sub-Saharan Africa
  • 70 of these victims are WOMEN
  • Close to 15 million children are orphans
  • due to AIDS
  • In the U.S.
  • 1 1.2 million people have AIDS
  • 25 may not even know they are infected

8
Is there a cure for AIDS?
  • Unfortunately NO!!!!
  • But, there are drugs that can stop HIV from
    causing more damage to the T-cells and the
    immune system.
  • These are called Antiviral drugs
  • What can you do to prevent HIV from spreading?????

9
Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV
  • HIV infection.
  • Release of HIV mature virus from a T cell
    lymphocyte
  • Nucleus of T cell Pink
  • Cytoplasm of T cell Purple
  • RNA virus, Retroviridae Family
  • Magnification x14,555

10
Electron microscope pictures of HIV
  • HIV infection.
  • Mature virus and budding release of HIV in
    human lymph tissue

Magnification x14,555
Magnification x17,545
11
Review Questions
  • Q Which cells of the immune system does the
    HIV virus destroys?
  • A T-Cells
  • Q What are the 4 major routes of
    transmission?
  • A Unprotected sex
  • Sharing contaminated needles
  • Breast milk
  • From mother to her unborn baby
  • Q What is the name of the disease caused by
    HIV?
  • A AIDS or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • Q What kind of a virus is HIV? DNA or RNA
  • A RNA

12
  • Q What happens when too many T cells are
    destroyed?
  • A The person gets AIDS and other diseases
  • Q Name 3 other diseases or infections that
    people with AIDS
  • can get?
  • A Kaposis Sarcoma Lung cancer Infections
  • Q Is there cure for AIDS?
  • A Not at the present time but scientists are
    working
  • very hard. Will you be the scientist who
    discovers
  • the cure?????
  • Q Is there any treatment?
  • A Yes, antiviral drugs are now available to
    help patients live
  • longer lives
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