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Warm-Up What were you most surprised by when looking at the fast food nutritional facts and watching SuperSize Me? Managing Weight and Body Composition Lesson 24 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Warm-Up

  • What were you most surprised by when looking at
    the fast food nutritional facts and watching
    SuperSize Me?

Managing Weight and Body Composition
  • Lesson 24

  • Examine the relationship between body composition
    and fitness
  • Examine the relationship between maintaining a
    healthy weight, health promotion and disease
  • Describe healthful ways to manage weight
  • Indentify behavior that will enhance and maintain
    personal health throughout life
  • Develop a plan for managing a personal healthy
  • Describe the risk of fad diets and other weight
    loss strategies
  • Describe the causes, symptoms and treatment of
    eating disorders
  • Identify the presence of an eating disorder as a
    situation requiring assistance from professional
    health services
  • Identify professional health service available to
    help those with eating disorders
  • Examine the differences between accurate and
    inaccurate information regarding nutrition

Nutrition for Individual Needs
Performance Nutrition
  • Best eating plan for athletes is one that is
    balanced, moderate and varied
  • Your bodys needs for protein, vitamins and
    minerals does not change dramatically when
    training, however because physical activity burns
    calories, athletes and other active individual
    need to eat more calories from nutrient-dense
    foods to maintain their weight and energy levels
    when training

  • Body naturally loses fluids through perspiration,
    breathing and waste elimination
  • Fluid loss increases during physical activity,
    especially in hot weather
  • Fluids must be replaced to avoid dehydration and
  • Dehydration can lead to an imbalance of
  • Minerals that help maintain the bodys fluid
  • Sodium, chloride, and potassium are all
  • You must take in as much water and electrolytes
    that you lose rehydration
  • Drink 16-24 ounces of fluids 2 to 3 hours before
    a heavy workout and 6-12 ounces of fluids every
    15-20 minutes during heavy workouts
  • Best to drink plain water to replenish fluids
    lost during exercise

Making Weight
  • Losing Weight
  • Competing in a weight class that is below your
    healthy weight zone can be dangerous
  • Fasting, crash dieting, or sweating off extra
    weight before weight ins can cause dehydration
  • Over time, such practices may also lead to a loss
    of muscle mass
  • Gaining Weight
  • A program that combines balanced nutrition and
    exercise is the healthful way to gain weight
  • Supervised weight lifting program can help build
    muscle mass
  • Extra calories you need for gaining weight should
    come from nutrient dense foods, not from protein
  • Slow weight gain of no more than 1-2lbs per week
    is recommended
  • Anabolic steroids or other body building drugs in
    NOT healthy

Eating Before Competition
  • Eating 3-4 hours before competition allows the
    stomach to empty yet gives an athlete the
    necessary energy and keeps him or her free from
    hunger pangs while competing
  • Choose a meal thats high in carbohydrates and
    low in fat and protein, both which stay in the
    digestive system for a longer period of time
  • Pasta, rice, vegetables, bread and fruits are
    good sources of carbohydrates
  • Drink plenty of water

  • Vegetarian a person who eats mostly or only
    plant foods
  • Religious reasons
  • Cultural reasons
  • Concern for environment
  • By cutting out the saturated fats and cholesterol
    found in many animal products vegetarians may
    reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease and
    some cancers
  • Consuming more fruits, vegetables and whole
    grains is also linked to a reduced risk of many
    health problems

Meeting Nutrient Needs
  • Need to eat a variety of incomplete proteins in a
    way that will yield complete proteins over the
    course of the day
  • Need to get enough iron, zinc and B vitamins
    which are often found in animal products

Dietary Supplements
  • Non-food form of one or more nutrients
  • May contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein,
    or herbs
  • Supplements can be in a pill, capsule, powder or
    liquid form
  • Eating healthy meals and snacks based on the Food
    Guide Pyramid can provide you with all the
    nutrients your body needs
  • A multivitamin may sometimes be appropriate
  • Vitamin and mineral supplements may be
    recommended for older adults, pregnant or nursing
    women, people receiving certain medical
    treatments and those recovering from illness

Risks of Dietary Supplements
  • Megadose
  • Very large amount of a dietary supplements
  • Can be very dangerous
  • Vitamins A, D, E and K are stored in body fat and
    may cause toxicity if taken in large amounts
  • Herbal supplement
  • Chemical substance from plants that may be sold
    as a dietary supplement
  • Often sold as natural
  • Safety and nutritional claims of these products
    are not based on conclusive scientific evidence

Nutrition During Pregnancy
  • Developing fetus depends on its mother for all
    its needs
  • Folate/ Folic Acid
  • Can prevent spinal defects in the developing
  • Sources include fruits, dark green leafy
    vegetables and fortified grain products
  • Iron
  • Increased blood volume during pregnancy produces
    and increased demand for this mineral
  • Found in meat, poultry, fish, dark green leafy
    vegetables and enriched grain products
  • Helps build and renew hemoglobin, the
    oxygen-carrying compound in blood cells
  • Calcium
  • Helps build bones and teeth of the developing
  • Replaces calcium taken from the mothers bones
  • Found in dairy products, dark green leafy
    vegetables, canned fish with edible bones and
    fortified cereals and juices

Nutrition for Infants and Young Children
  • Breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants
  • If not possible, fortified formulas will provide
    the baby with the nutrients he/she needs
  • Through the first year, formula is supplement
    with a variety of solid foods
  • Starting with cereal grains, then fruits and
    vegetables and then meat or poultry
  • After the first year, many parents substitute
    whole milk for formula or breast milk
  • Fats in whole milk provide essential nutrients
    for a childs developing nervous system
  • Between a childs 2nd and 5th birthday parents
    should gradually replace whole milk with low or
    non fat milk to meet the calcium and vitamin D
    needs while reducing fat intake

Nutrition and Older Adults
  • Usually the same as younger adults
  • However, certain health problems may change the
    nutritional needs
  • Some medications interfere with nutrient
    absorption, so dietary supplements may be needed

Maintaining a Healthy Weight
Body Image
  • The way you see your body
  • Affected by several factors
  • Media images
  • Friends
  • Family
  • Often died to perception of weight
  • Remember, your own healthy weight probably wont
    be the same as a fashion model, body builder or
    your best friend

Weight-Calorie Connection
  • Calories are used to measure energy
  • Energy in food and energy you body uses for life
    processes and physical activities
  • Maintaining weight is a matter of energy balance
  • The calories you consume must equal the calories
    your body burns (calories incalories out)
  • If you take in fewer calories than you burn you
    will lose weight
  • If you take in more calories than you burn you
    will gain weight

  • Review
  • Fats 9 calories per gram
  • Proteins 4 calories per gram
  • Carbohydrates 4 calories per gram
  • Even small amounts of fat greatly increase
    calorie content

Calories Continued
  • One pound of body fat equals 3,500 calories
  • Eating 500 fewer calories a day would result in
    the loss of 1lb in a week
  • Burning an additional 500 calories a day would
    result in the loss of 1 lb in a week

Determining Appropriate Weight Range
  • Influenced by several factors
  • Gender
  • Age
  • Height
  • Body frame
  • Growth rate
  • Metabolic rate
  • Activity level

Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • A ratio that allows you to assess your body size
    in relation to your height and weight
  • Different charts used for males and females,
    because age and gender need to be taken into
  • Figure 6.1 pg 146

Body Weight vs Body Fat
  • Overweight condition in which a person is
    heavier than the standard weight range for his or
    her height
  • Does not mean you are unhealthy! Muscle mass must
    be taken into account
  • Obesity an excess amount of body fat
  • This is always bad for your health!

Health Risks of Being Overweight
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Cancer
  • High blood pressure
  • Osteoarthritis
  • 14 of teens are overweight!
  • Strains muscle and skeletal system
  • Forces heart and lungs to work harder

  • A condition in which a person is less than the
    standard weight range for his or her height
  • Some teens are very thin while they are growing
  • Could be normal because of genetics or a fast
  • However, other people diet or exercise
    excessively in order to stay thin
  • Problems
  • Little stored fat to supply the body with energy
  • Person may be consuming too few calories,
    decreasing their ability to fight illness

Healthy Ways to Manage Weight
  • Target your appropriate weight
  • Speak with a health care professional to
    determine a weight range that is healthy for you
  • Set realistic goals
  • Gaining or losing ½ lb to 1 lb per week is a safe
    and realistic goal
  • Personalize your plan
  • Think about your food preferences and your
    lifestyle when designing your program
  • Put your goal and plan in writing
  • May also find it helpful to keep a journal of
    what and when you eat
  • Evaluate your progress
  • Weigh yourself
  • Take measurements
  • Pay attention to how clothes are fitting

Healthy Weight Loss Strategies
  • Eat enough calories to meet your bodys daily
    needs (roughly 1700-1800)
  • Include your favorites in moderation
  • Eat a variety of low-calorie, nutrient dense
  • Foods that are high in nutrients as compared with
    their calorie content
  • Whole grain products, vegetables, fruits
  • Drink plenty of water

Healthy Weight Gain Strategies
  • Increase your calorie content
  • Foods high in complex carbohydrates
  • Bread, pasta, potatoes
  • Limit foods high in fat and sugar
  • Eat often and take second helpings
  • Choose more than the minimum number of servings
    from each food group in the Food Guide Pyramid
  • Eat nutritious snacks
  • Snack 2 to 3 hours before meals to avoid spoiling
    your appetite
  • Build muscle
  • A supervised resistance training program will
    help you gain weight by increasing muscle mass

Calculate your Risk
  • Go to the American Heart Association Risk
    Calculator connected to the class website
  • If you dont know your blood pressure type in 120
    for systolic and 80 for diastolic
  • If you dont know your cholesterol type 150 for
    total cholesterol, 50 for HDL and 100 for LDL

Fad Diets and Eating Disorders
Fad Diets
  • Weight-loss plans that are popular for only a
    short time
  • Often limit food variety
  • Severe food restriction deprives the body of all
    the nutrients it needs
  • Weight lost is usually regained
  • Liquid Diets
  • Dieter replaces all food intake with a special
    liquid formula
  • Generally do not meet the bodys caloric needs
  • Deprives body of nutrients

  • Fasting
  • Abstain from eating
  • Deprives body of nutritional needs and energy
  • If limiting liquid, faster may become dehydrated
  • Not recommended for any extended period of time
    unless under a health care professionals
  • Diet Pills
  • Suppress appetite
  • May cause drowsiness, anxiety, racing heart or
    other serious side effects
  • Can be addictive
  • Some cause the body to loose more water than
    normal, leading to dehydration

Weight Cycling
  • Repeated pattern of loss and regain of body
  • Common among people who follow fad diets
  • Slow and steady weight loss is the best strategy
    for long lasting results

Eating Disorders
  • An extreme, harmful eating behavior that can
    cause serious illness or even death
  • 90 of those suffering are female while only 10
    are male
  • Serious health problem
  • Professional health is needed

Anorexia Nervosa
  • Disorder in which the irrational fear of becoming
    obese results in severe weight loss from
    self-imposed starvation
  • Emotional and physical consequences
  • Most often develops in teenage girls and young
  • Symptoms
  • Extremely low caloric intake
  • Obsession with exercising
  • Emotional problems
  • Unnatural interest in food
  • Distorted body image
  • Denial of a problem
  • Health Consequences
  • Loss of bone density
  • Low body temperature
  • Low blood pressure
  • Slowed metabolism
  • Reduction in organ size
  • Irregular heart beat
  • Death
  • Treatment

Bulimia Nervosa
  • Disorder in which some form of purging or
    clearing of the digestive tract follows cycles of
  • Person often follows a strict diet and then
    binges (quickly consumes large amounts of food)
    followed by purging
  • Vomit
  • Laxatives
  • Symptoms
  • Distorted body image
  • Unnatural interest in food
  • Trips to the bathroom after meals
  • Health Consequences
  • Dehydration
  • Kidney damage
  • Irregular heart beat
  • Destruction of tooth enamel
  • Tooth decay
  • Damage to the tissues of the stomach, esophagus,
    and mouth
  • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Treatment
  • Medication
  • Psychological counseling

Binge Eating Disorder
  • Disorder characterized by compulsive overeating
  • Health Consequences
  • Weight gain
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • Gallbladder problems
  • High cholesterol
  • Increased risk of certain cancers
  • Treatment
  • Psychological counseling
  • medication

  • Need professional medical and psychological help
  • Support groups
  • Clinics
  • All eating disorders are serious
  • If you believe a friend might be developing an
    eating disorder, discuss the problem with a
    trusted adult
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