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Chapter%2013%20Genetics%20and%20Biotechnology

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Title: Chapter%2013%20Genetics%20and%20Biotechnology


1
Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology
  • 13.1 Applied Genetics

2
Selective Breeding
  • The process by which desired traits of certain
    plants and animals are selected and passed on to
    their future generations is called selective
    breeding.

3
Selective Breeding
  • Hybridization is crossing parent organisms with
    different forms of a trait to produce offspring
    with specific traits.
  • Hybrid organisms can be bred to be more
    disease-resistant, to produce more offspring, or
    to grow faster.
  • A disadvantage of hybridization is that it is
    time consuming and expensive.

4
Selective Breeding
  • Specific traits in breeds can be maintained by
    inbreeding (breeding two closely related
    organisms)
  • Clydesdale horses have been inbred to retain the
    desired traits strength, agility, and obedient
    nature

5
Selective Breeding
  • Disadvantages of inbreeding is that harmful
    recessive traits can also be passed to future
    generations

German Shepherd hip dysplasia
6
Test Cross
  • A test cross involves breeding an organism that
    has the unknown genotype (PP or Pp) with one that
    is homozygous recessive (pp) for the desired trait

7
Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology
  • 13.2 DNA Technology

8
Genetic Engineering
  • Technology that involves manipulating
    the DNA of one organism in order to insert the
    DNA of another organism, called exogenous DNA.

9
Genetic Engineering
  • Production of human insulin by bacteria was one
    of the first commercially successful uses genetic
    engineering technology.

10
Genetic Engineering
  • Genetically engineered organisms are used
  • to study the expression of a particular gene.
  • to investigate cellular processes.
  • to study the development of a certain disease.
  • to select traits that
  • might be beneficial
  • to humans.

11
Genetic Engineering
  • Many bizarre and interesting uses for genetic
    engineering technologies have been reported.

12
DNA Tools
  • An organisms genome is the total DNA in the
    nucleus of each cell.
  • DNA tools can be used
  • to manipulate DNA and to
  • isolate genes from the
  • rest of the genome.

13
DNA Tools
  • Restriction Enzymes are proteins used to cut DNA
    at specific sequences in specific ways.
  • Restriction enzymes are naturally present in
    bacteria to cut and thus restrict foreign DNA
    from interfering with the bacterial DNA

14
Restriction Enzymes
  • EcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the
    sequence GAATTC.
  • The ends of the DNA fragments, called sticky
    ends, contain single-stranded DNA that is
    complementary.

15
Restriction Enzymes
16
Gel Electrophoresis
  • An electric current is used to separate DNA
    fragments according to the size of the fragments
    in a process called gel electrophoresis.
  • When an electric current is applied, the DNA
    fragments move toward the positive end of the
    gel.
  • The smaller fragments move farther faster than
    the larger ones.

17
Gel Electrophoresis
  • The unique pattern created based on the size of
    the DNA fragment can be compared to known DNA
    fragments for identification.

18
Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Recombinant DNA is DNA combined from two (or
    more) sources.

19
Recombinant DNA Technology
  • A gene of interest from one organisms DNA is cut
    out with a restriction enzyme.
  • Another organism's DNA is cut open with the same
    restriction enzyme.
  • The gene that was cut out is inserted in the open
    DNA of the second organism.
  • Result is a transgenic organism
  • Easy to insert genes into bacteria more
    difficult with other organisms

20
Recombinant DNA Technology
  • To make a large quantity of recombinant plasmid
    DNA, bacterial cells are mixed with recombinant
    plasmid DNA.
  • Some of the bacterial cells take up the
    recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called
    transformation.
  • Large numbers of
  • identical bacteria, each
  • containing the inserted
  • DNA molecules, can
  • be produced through a
  • process called cloning.

21
Recombinant DNA Technology
  • To understand how DNA is sequenced, scientists
    mix an unknown DNA fragment, DNA polymerase, and
    the four nucleotidesA, C, G, T in a tube.

22
Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Each nucleotide is tagged with a different color
    of fluorescent dye.
  • Every time a modified fluorescent-tagged
    nucleotide is
  • incorporated into the newly synthesized strand,
    the reaction stops.

23
Recombinant DNA Technology
  • The sequencing reaction is complete when the
    tagged DNA fragments are separated by gel
    electrophoresis.

24
Recombinant DNA Technology
  • A technique called the polymerase chain reaction
    (PCR) can be used to make millions of copies of a
    specific region of a DNA fragment.

25
Recombinant DNA Technology
26
Uses of Recombinant DNA
27
Biotechnology
  • Organisms genetically engineered by inserting a
    gene from another organism are called transgenic
    organisms.

28
Biotechnology
  • Transgenic animals are produced for biological
    research.

29
Biotechnology
  • Transgenic plants are produced to solve food or
    nutritional problems

Rice plants with increased iron and vitamins
could decrease malnutrition.
Genetically engineered cotton resists insect
infestation of the bolls.
30
Biotechnology
  • Insulin, human growth hormone and substances that
    dissolve blood clots are made by transgenic
    bacteria.
  • Transgenic bacteria slow the formation of ice
    crystals on crops to protect them from frost,
    clean up oil spills, and decompose garbage.

31
Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology
  • 13.3 The Human Genome

32
The Human Genome Project
  • International Project to sequence the entire
    approximately three billion nucleotides that make
    up the human genome.
  • Began in 1990 and completed in 2003 ahead of
    schedule and under budget.
  • Found that less than 2 of all the nucleotides in
    the body code for all of the approximately
    100,000 proteins in the body.

33
DNA Fingerprinting
  • Using noncoding sequences that are unique to each
    individual (except identical twins), scientists
    can identify individuals by their DNA.
  • Any cell of the body can be used since all cells
    have the same DNA (except red blood cells that do
    not have a nucleus).
  • The amount of DNA is magnifed by PCR, then cut
    with restriction enzymes and separated by gel
    electrophoresis.

34
DNA Fingerprinting
  • Banding patterns are unique to each person
  • Used to identify suspects and victims in a crime,
    determine paternity, and identify soldiers killed
    in war.
  • Also used to determine evolutionary relationships

35
Identifying Genes
  • After sequencing the DNA the next step is
    identifying genes.
  • Originally thought that humans had 100,000 genes
    because we have 100,000 proteins (one gene-one
    protein)
  • Now know that we have 20,000-25,000 genes.
  • Complicated analysis that uses information from
    other genomes DNA sequences along with computer
    algorithms

36
Bioinformatics and DNA Microarrays
  • Bioinformatics is a field of study creates and
    maintains databases of biological information.
  • DNA microarrays are tiny microscope slides or
    silicon chips which contain the genes of an
    organism (a few genes or the whole genome).

37
The Genome and Genetics Disorders
  • More than 99 of an individuals DNA sequence is
    the same as any other individual.
  • Some of the differences that exist are a result
    of a mutation to cause a genetic disorder.
  • HapMap project seeks to identify common genetic
    variation that occur in humans.

38
The Genome and Genetics Disorders
  • Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genetic
    inheritance affects the bodys response to drugs.
  • Gene therapy is a technique used to correct
    mutated genes.
  • Viruses are used as a vector to insert the good
    gene into the patients cells
  • All gene therapy trials stopped in 2003 due to a
    death caused by a reaction to virus

39
Genomics and Proteomics
  • Studying the genome is genomics.
  • Genes are storage units
  • Proteomics is the study of the structure and
    function of human proteins.
  • Proteins are machines of the cell
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