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WPI HIVE: Introduction to Virtual Reality Interesting Issues, Open Problems

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WPI HIVE: Introduction to Virtual Reality Interesting Issues, Open Problems Prof. Robert W. Lindeman Worcester Polytechnic Institute Department of Computer Science – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WPI HIVE: Introduction to Virtual Reality Interesting Issues, Open Problems


1
WPI HIVEIntroduction to Virtual
RealityInteresting Issues, Open Problems
  • Prof. Robert W. Lindeman
  • Worcester Polytechnic Institute
  • Department of Computer Science
  • gogo_at_wpi.edu

2
Overview
  • Administrative Stuff
  • What is Virtual Reality?
  • Why study Interaction in VR?
  • Open Problems

3
Motivation
  • Much excitement (and hype) about how VR was going
    to change things
  • VR has not made inroads into everyday life
  • Lagging technology
  • Lack of understanding of usability issues
  • Lack of killer app
  • Still remains mainly in research labs
  • Video games show great promise
  • Training scenarios - surgery, military, therapy
  • Long-Term Goal
  • Make VR more usable

4
Nothing New?SENSORAMA by Morton Heilig (1960)
5
Background
  • VR defined
  • Fooling the senses into believing they are
    experiencing something they are not actually
    experiencing
  • Virtual reality systems consist of
  • Graphical/audio/haptic/... rendering
  • Content
  • Tracking of people and objects
  • Collision detection
  • Interaction techniques
  • Optional, but common
  • Networking
  • Autonomous agents

6
Keys to Success
  • High fidelity (or realism)
  • Graphics, audio, haptics, behaviors, etc.
  • Low latency
  • Tracking
  • Collision detection
  • Rendering
  • Networking
  • Ease of use
  • Low cumber for users
  • Easy integration for programmers
  • Compelling Content

7
The Senses
  • See (Visual Sense)
  • Visuals are excellent!
  • Hear (Aural Sense)
  • Spatialized audio is very good!
  • Smell (Olfactory Sense)
  • Very hard! Too many types of receptors.
  • Touch (Haptic Sense)
  • Application specific and cumbersome
  • Taste (Gustatory Sense)
  • We know the base tastes, but that is it!

8
See Head-Mounted Displays
9
See Projection-Based Environments
10
See Projection-Based Environments (cont.)
11
Hear Sound in VR
  • Display techniques
  • Multi-speaker output (sound cube)
  • Headphones
  • Waveform filtering
  • Simple balance volume control
  • Head-Related Transfer Functions
  • Software "Standards"
  • OpenAL
  • A3D from Aureal (RIP!)
  • VRSonic.com

12
Smell Olfactory Sense
  • Two main problems
  • Scent generation
  • Tens of thousands of receptor types
  • Scent delivery
  • Easier problem

13
Smell Air Cannon (Yanagida, 2004)
14
Touch Haptic Feedback in VR
  • Tactile Surface properties
  • Most densely populated area is the fingertip
    (okay, it's the tongue)
  • Kinesthetic Muscles, Tendons, etc.
  • Also known as proprioception

15
Vibrotactile Feedback Projects
GW TactaBoard and TactaVest
Navy TSAS Project
16
The TactaBoard 2.1
17
Empirical Studies
  • TactaChair experiments
  • Vibration location identification
  • Priming for a visual search task
  • Intensity matching
  • Current experiments
  • Exposure during room clearing tasks
  • Spatial awareness
  • Team member location for team training
  • Robot tele-operation

18
TactaChair Experiments
19
Exposure Experiments
  • Looking at the use of spatialized vibrotactile
    feedback as a training aid on "victim" search
    tasks

20
Exposure Experiments (cont.)
  • Use vibration to convey exposure
  • Results to appear in ACM CHI 2005

21
Issues to be Addressed
  • Transfer effects from virtual to real
    environments
  • How do subjects perform after training in VR?
  • Psychophysical issues
  • Sensory substitution
  • Cognitive Issues
  • Does the addition of haptic cues increase
    cognitive load?
  • Multi-modal integration

22
Interaction in VR
  • Use of a keyboard and mouse is not tractable
  • Can't see them
  • Want to move around
  • No good 3D mappings
  • How can we allow easy interaction that takes
    advantage of real-world experience?
  • This is the problem that we need to solve!

23
Primary Interface Tasks
  • Navigation and Wayfinding
  • Object Selection
  • Object Manipulation
  • Direct Manipulation
  • Indirect Manipulation
  • Can compare different techniques empirically

24
Desktop InteractionSensAble PHANToM
http//www.sensable.com/
25
Direct Manipulation
Courtesy Virginia Tech
26
Can We Do WIMP in VR?
Courtesy Virginia Tech
27
Wearable Interaction with HapticsImmersion
CyberGrasp
http//www.immersion.com/
28
Wearable InteractionRob's Hand-Held Windows
http//www.cs.wpi.edu/gogo/
29
How Do We Do Menus?
Courtesy Virginia Tech
30
Interface Devices
Courtesy Virginia Tech
31
Augmented Reality (AR)
Courtesy Virginia Tech
32
Applications
  • Data perceptualization
  • Map variables to tactors
  • Spatial awareness
  • Driver warning system (vibrotactile Bott's dots)
  • Navigational aid
  • Firefighter guidance
  • Non-verbal communication
  • Map hand signals to vibrotactile patterns

33
The Unified Scene Graph
  • A way of specifying visual, audio, and tactile
    object properties
  • Design goals
  • Provide programmer with a single scene graph
  • Need to retain speed
  • Need to support different "renderers"
  • Main concepts
  • Material node on steroids
  • Compile/flatten routines

34
The Unified Scene Graph (cont.)
  • Associate all properties in Material Node

35
Summary of Research Activities
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Usability studies
  • Computer Graphics
  • Virtual Reality and Gaming
  • Interesting input devices
  • Haptic/tactile feedback
  • Multi-modal interaction and integration
  • Pervasive and Wearable Computing
  • Robot Tele-Operation

36
Open Problems in VR
  • Tracking sucks!
  • Optical, magnetic, ultrasonic, inertial, hybrid
  • Integration of sensory stimuli
  • Good combination of direct and indirect user
    interaction
  • User studies!
  • Tough to design
  • Easy to get subjects

37
More Info
  • gogo_at_wpi.edu
  • http//www.cs.wpi.edu/gogo/
  • http//www.cs.wpi.edu/gogo/hive/
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