Chapter 1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 71c5b0-NjEzN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Description:

Title: Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4 Author: Stan & Cindy Hatfield Last modified by: ed.meyers Created Date: 12/18/2000 12:31:17 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:56
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 48
Provided by: Stan4159
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks


1
Chapter 1 Minerals Building Blocks of Rocks
2
Minerals Building Blocks of Rocks
  • By definition a mineral is/has
  • Naturally occurring
  • Inorganic solid
  • Ordered internal molecular structure
  • Definite chemical composition

3
Rocks are an aggregate of minerals
4
Composition and Structure of Minerals
  • Atoms Elements Minerals Rocks

5
Earth Composition
Earth Consists of the Core, Mantle, and Crust
6
Elemental Abundances in Continental Crust
Figure 1.14
7
Elemental Abundances Earth as a whole vs Crust
Earth
Crust
  • Oxygen 35
  • Iron 24
  • Silicon 17
  • Magnesium 14
  • Sulfur 6
  • Aluminum 1
  • Calcium 1
  • Oxygen 47
  • Iron 5.5
  • Silicon 27
  • Magnesium 2.1
  • Sulfur lt1
  • Aluminum 8
  • Calcium 3.7

8
Composition and Structure of Minerals
  • Elements
  • Basic building blocks of minerals
  • Over 100 are known (92 naturally occurring)
  • Atoms
  • Smallest particles of matter
  • Retain all the characteristics of an element

9
Composition and Structure of Minerals
  • Atomic structure
  • Central region called the nucleus
  • Consists of protons ( charges) and neutrons (-
    charges)
  • Electrons
  • Negatively charged particles that surround the
    nucleus
  • Located in discrete energy levels called shells

10
Structure of an Atom
Figure 1.5 A
11
Structure of an Atom
Figure 1.5 A
12
Composition and Structure of Minerals
  • Chemical bonding
  • Formation of a compound by combining two or more
    elements
  • Atoms gain or lose outermost electrons to form
    ions
  • Oppositely charged ions attract one another to
    produce a neutral chemical compound

13
Composition and Structure of Minerals
  • Isotopes and radioactive decay
  • Mass number sum of neutrons protons in an
    atom
  • Isotope atom that exhibits variation in its
    mass number
  • Unstable isotopes emit particles and energy in a
    process known as radioactive decay

14
Physical Properties of Minerals
  • Crystal form
  • External expression of a minerals internal
    structure
  • Often interrupted due to competition for space
    and rapid loss of heat

15
A Garnet Crystal
16
Cubic Crystals of Pyrite
Figure 1.7 A
17
Physical Properties of Minerals
  • Luster
  • Appearance of a mineral in reflected light
  • Two basic categories
  • Metallic
  • Nonmetallic
  • Other descriptive terms include vitreous, silky,
    or earthy

18
Galena (PbS) Displays Metallic Luster
Figure 1.13
19
Physical Properties of Minerals
  • Color
  • Generally unreliable for mineral identification
  • Often highly variable due to slight changes in
    mineral chemistry
  • Exotic colorations of certain minerals produce
    gemstones

20
Quartz (SiO2) Exhibits a Variety of Colors
21
Physical Properties of Minerals
  • Streak
  • Color of a mineral in its powdered form
  • Hardness
  • Resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching
  • All minerals are compared to a standard scale
    called the Mohs scale of hardness

22
Streak Is Obtained on an Unglazed Porcelain Plate
Figure 1.8
23
Mohs Scale of Hardness
Figure 1.9
24
Physical Properties of Minerals
  • Cleavage
  • Tendency to break along planes of weak bonding
  • Produces flat, shiny surfaces
  • Described by resulting geometric shapes
  • Number of planes
  • Angles between adjacent planes

25
Fluorite, Halite, and Calcite All Exhibit Perfect
Cleavage
Figure 1.11
26
Physical Properties of Minerals
  • Fracture
  • Absence of cleavage when a mineral is broken
  • Specific Gravity
  • Weight of a mineral/weight of an equal volume of
    water
  • Average value 2.5 3.0

27
Conchoidal Fracture
Figure 1.12
28
Physical Properties of Minerals
  • Other properties
  • Magnetism
  • Reaction to hydrochloric acid
  • Malleability
  • Double refraction
  • Taste
  • Smell
  • Elasticity

29
Mineral???????
  • Quartz Yes No
  • Coal Yes No
  • Pearls Yes No
  • Amethyst Yes No
  • Shells Yes No
  • Water Yes No
  • Ice Yes No
  • Iron Yes No

30
Mineral Groups
  • Nearly 4000 minerals have been named
  • Rock-forming minerals
  • Common minerals that make up most of the rocks of
    Earths crust
  • Only a few dozen members
  • Composed mainly of the 8 elements that make up
    over 98 of the continental crust

31
Mineral Groups
  • Silicates
  • Most important mineral group
  • Comprise most rock-forming minerals
  • Very abundant due to large of silicon and
    oxygen in Earths crust
  • Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
  • Fundamental building block
  • Four oxygen ions surrounding a much smaller
    silicon ion

32
Two Illustrations of the SiO Tetrahedron
Figure 1.15
33
Mineral Groups
  • Common silicate minerals
  • Feldspar group
  • Most common mineral group
  • Quartz
  • Only common silicate composed entirely of oxygen
    and silicon

34
Potassium Feldspar
Figure 1.17
35
Mineral Groups
  • Important nonsilicate minerals
  • Comprise only 8 of Earths crust
  • Often occur as constituents in sedimentary rocks

36
Table 1.1
37
Mineral Groups
  • Important nonsilicate minerals
  • Carbonates
  • Primary constituents in limestone and marble
  • Limestone is used commercially for road paving,
    building stone, and as the main ingredient in
    Portland cement

38
Mineral Groups
  • Important nonsilicate minerals
  • Halite and gypsum
  • Both are commonly found in thick layers
  • Like limestone, both halite and gypsum are
    important nonmetallic resources

39
Mineral Groups
  • Important nonsilicate minerals
  • A number of other minerals have economic value
  • Examples
  • Hematite (oxide mined for iron ore)
  • Sphalerite (sulfide mined for zinc ore)
  • Galena (lead)
  • Native copper (native element mined for copper)

40
Native Copper
41
Mineral Resources and Reserves
  • Resources are minerals that can be recovered for
    use
  • Reserves include mineral deposits already
    identified that can be profitability extracted
  • Resources include reserves, deposits that can not
    economically recovered, and minerals not yet
    discovered

42
Florida Production
  • 4th in states for non fuel minerals
  • Top 3 in the states for crushed stone, cement,
    and peat
  • 1st in states in heavy mineral sales
  • 1st in world for phosphate production

43
Florida Production - Phosphate
  • 90 used for fertilizer
  • 5 for livestock feed supplement
  • 5 used in food products, chemicals and ceramics

44
Florida Production Crushed Stone
  • Limestone and coquina
  • Used for construction
  • Limestone used for cement

45
Florida Production Clays
  • Used for absorbents, anti-acids, and whiteners

46
Florida Production Heavy Minerals
  • Found in Sands
  • Main minerals include ilmenite and rutile both
    metamorphic minerals
  • Used as paint pigments, paper, and plastics

47
End of Chapter 1
About PowerShow.com