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Introduction to Ecology

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Introduction to Ecology Chapter 50 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Ecology


1
Introduction to Ecology
  • Chapter 50

2
Ecology
  • Study of interactions between organisms and the
    environment
  • Interactions ?determine the abundance and
    distribution of organisms
  • Since prehistoric times humans are interested in
    this dist. abund.? WHY???

3
Ecology
  • Changing? was a descriptive science, now is
    becoming more of an experimental science
  • Provides a scientific context for evaluation of
    environmental issues
  • Is very closely related to evolutionary biology

4
Environment
  • Affects the distribution of organisms
  • Is made up of
  • Abiotic? no living components
  • Biotic? living components

5
Abiotic Factors
  • Light
  • Water
  • Temperature
  • Soil
  • O2/CO2
  • Periodic disturbances in all these leads to
    species diversity

6
Biotic Factors
  • Individual organisms
  • Populations
  • Communities
  • Ecosystems
  • Biosphere? global ecosystem
  • All living organisms of the earth ?portion that
    can sustain life

7
Distribution of Organisms
  • Distinct global and regional patterns in the
    distribution of organisms
  • Biogeography is the study of past and present
    distributions of individual species
  • Ecologists? what limits the geographical
    distribution of any species

8
Factors that Affect Distribution
  • Species dispersal
  • Behavior and Habitat Selection
  • Biotic factors
  • Abiotic

9
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10
Species dispersal
  • Transplanted species
  • Successful ?potential range of the species is
    larger than the actual range.
  • Unsuccessful, ?distribution is limited by other
    species or abiotic factors

11
Problems with Introduced Species
  • Transplanted species? explode
  • Ex African honeybee Zebramussel

12
Behavior and Habitat Selection
  • organisms select particular habitats
  • Insects ? oviposition, breeding areas
  • Chemical signaling between plants and pollinators
  • Evolution does not produce the perfect organism?
    populations do not evolve overnight, even natural
    selection may not be

13
Biotic Factors
  • Predators limit distribution of prey species

14
Abiotic Factors
  • Temperature
  • Water
  • Sunlight
  • Wind
  • Rocks and soil

15
Temperature and Water
  • Climate is the prevailing weather conditions in
    an area
  • major components? Temperature, water, light, and
    wind
  • Climate determines the makeup of Biomes

16
Climate and Biomes
17
Temperature and Water
  • Global Climate Patterns ?Sunlight Planets
    movement

18
Temperature and Water contd
  • Local and seasonal effects on climate
  • Microclimate
  • Long-term climate change
  • Effect of mountains on rainfall

19
Biomes
  • A distinct ecological community of plants and
    animals living together in a particular climate
  • Biomes often run into each other
  • Major types
  • Aquatic
  • Terrestrial

20
Aquatic Biomes
  • Vertical stratification of aquatic biomes
  • The photic zone
  • The aphotic zone
  • Thermocline
  • The benthic zone

21
Freshwater biomes
  • The littoral zone is shallow and close to shore.
  • The limnetic zone is the open surface water.
  • The profundal zone consists of the deep, aphotic
    regions.

22
Lakes
  • Oligotrophic

23
Lakes
  • Eutrophic

24
Streams and Rivers
25
Wetlands
26
Estuaries
27
Zones in Marine Communities
28
Coral Reefs
29
Terrestrial Biomes
  • Tropical Rain forest
  • Savanna
  • Desert
  • Chaparal
  • Temperate grasslands
  • Temperate deciduous forest
  • Coniferous forest
  • Tundra

30
The Spatial Scale of Distributions
  • Different factors may determine the distribution
    of a species on different scales
  • Most species have small geographic ranges
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