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Chapter 15


Chapter 15 Years of Crisis – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Years of Crisis
Main Points
  • Postwar Uncertainty
  • Worldwide Depression
  • Fascism Rising in Europe
  • Aggressors Invade Nations

Postwar Uncertainty
  • New Revolutions in Science
  • Albert Einstein German Born Theory of
    Relativity Speed of light, time, space theories
    of gravity and motion
  • Sigmund Freud psychology believed human
    behavior is irrational beyond reason -- this
    was the unconsciousness

Literature in the 1920s
  • Devastation of World War I caused writers to
    question accepted ideas of reason and doubt of
    traditional religious values
  • T.S. Eliot, 1922, American poet living in England
    Western society lost its spiritual values
    Postwar world a barren wasteland drained of
    faith and hope
  • William Butler Yeats, Irish poet, wrote about a
    sense of dark times - The Second Coming (1921)
  • Lost Generation writer who wrote the Great
    Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald

  • Jean Paul Sartre
  • Belief that there is no universal meaning to
    life. People create their own mean in life
    through their choices and actions rejects the
    ideas of universal values
  • Friedrich Nietzsche, German Philosopher, was
    influenced by Existentialism
  • Western ideas like reason, democracy, and
    progress stifled creativity. He urged return to
    ancient heroic values pride, assertiveness, and

Literature in the 1920s
  • Czech-born author, Franz Kafka, The Trial,
    (1925), The Castle, (1926) people caught in
    threatening situations they cannot understand nor
  • James Joyce, Irish author, stream of
    consciousness novel, Ulysses (1922)
  • Novelists

Kafka and Joyce
Revolution in the Arts
  • Artists Rebel against Tradition
  • Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky used bold
    colors and distorted or exaggerated forms

  • Surreal means beyond or above reality Used
    unconscious part of their minds had an eerie,
    dreamlike quality to depict objects in
    unrealistic ways Surrealism
  • Movement that tried to link the world of dreams
    with real life inspired by Freuds ideas.
  • Salvador Dali, Spanish painter, The Persistence
    of Memory, (1931)

The Persistence of Memory
  • Transformed natural shapes into geometric forms
  • Objects broken down into differnet parts with
    sharp angles and edges
  • Creator of Cubism Pablo Picasso, Spanish
    Painter, Guernica and
  • Georges Braque, French painter, The Violin and
    the Candlestick

Cubism Guernica and Violin of Candlesticks
  • Classical
  • Movement away from traditional styles
  • Russian Composer - Igor Stravinsky, The Rite of
    Spring,irregular rhythms and dissonances harsh
    combinations of sound
  • Austrian composer, Arnold Schoenberg rejected
    traditional harmonies and musical scales

  • Emerged from the United States, from most African
    American artists in New Orleans, Memphis, and
  • Lively, loose beat captured the new freedom of
    the age
  • New freedom of the postwar years

New Orleans Jazz
Society Challenges Convention
  • Change in Womens Roles
  • Women worked in mens jobs and in war effort, and
    wanted the right to vote
  • Many countries granted womens suffrage into law
    such as the US, Britain, Germany, Sweden, and
  • Women abandoned restrictive clothing and
    hairstyles shorter looser garments and short
    bobbed hair

Womens Changes in Fashion
Womens Roles Change
  • Women wore make up, drove cars, drank and smoked
    in public
  • Most women followed traditional paths of marriage
    and family
  • Margaret Sanger and Emma Goldman risked arrest,
    speaking out in support of birth control
  • Women began to seek careers in medicine,
    education, journalism, and clerical fields

Margaret Sanger/1920s women
Technological Advances Improve Life
  • Automobiles after war were more affordable
    people traveled for pleasure
  • People moved to suburbs and commuted to work in
  • Airplanes transform travel International air
  • Charles Lindbergh 33-hour solo flight from New
    York to Paris Spirit of St. Louis
  • Passenger airlines established during 1920s.
  • Amelia Earhart, American in 1932 was first
    woman to fly solo across the Atlantic

Aviation Advances
Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment
  • Guglielmo Marconi first successful experiments
    with radio in 1895
  • Radio developed mostly through World War I
  • By 1920 the first commercial radio station ---
    KDKA in Pittsburgh was broadcasting
  • Radio swept the nation and soon every major city
    had stations broadcasting news, plays and live
    sporting events
  • Soon most families would own a radio

  • Motion pictures began with Nickelodeons in
    working-class, immigrant neighborhoods
  • Movie makers were charged with corrupting the
    youth, movie makers tried to make their movies
    more respectable.
  • Movie makers had to find a way to make their
    product more in line with the dominant culture of
    a more conservative middle class society.

Hollywood Big Eight Movie Companies
  • Paramount studies was the first of the studios at
    this time.
  • The Big Eight
  • Paramount
  • Fox
  • MGM
  • Universal
  • Warner Brothers
  • Columbia
  • United Artists
  • RKO

Postwar Europe
  • Unstable New Democracies
  • With the end of WWI, the last of Europes
    absolute rulers were overthrown
  • Provisional Government Russias brief
    democratic government
  • Weimar Republic Germanys new democratic
  • After WWI most European nations had Democratic
    rule even if only temporary

Weimar Republic
  • Set up in 1919
  • Named for the city where the national assembly
  • Weak from the start
  • Germany lacked a strong democratic tradition
  • Germany had several major political parties and
    many minor ones
  • Millions of Germans blamed the Weimar government
    for the defeat and postwar humiliation by signing
    Treaty of Versailles

Inflation Caused Crisis in Germany
  • Germany did not increase wartime taxes -- Germans
    just printed more money
  • After the war, Germany printed even more money to
    pay war reparations
  • Paper money lost its value and the German marks
    value fell sharply.
  • Severe inflation set in
  • In 1918, a loaf of bread cost less than a mark
    In 1922 it was over 160 marks, and in 1923, more
    than 200 billion marks (10,000 American
  • As a result many Germans questioned the value
    of the Weimar Republic

Dawes Plan
  • In 1924, International Committee headed by
    American banker, Charles Dawes, provided for a
    200 million loan from US banks to stabilize
    German currency and strengthen its economy
  • Plan set more realistic schedule for payment of
    Germanys reparations
  • The plan helped slow inflation, the German
    Economy began to recover, and factories were at
    prewar production by 1929

The Dawes Plan
Lasting Peace
  • With German prosperity, Germanys foreign
    minister, Gustav Stresemann and Frances foreign
    minister, Aristide Briand met to sign a treaty
    promising France and Germany would never go to
    war against each other
  • Germany agreed to respect the existing borders of
    France and Belgium
  • Germany was then admitted to League of Nations

Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact
  • US Secretary of State, Frank Kellogg, and
    Frances Aristide Briand arranged an agreement to
    renounce war as an instrument of national
  • Almost all nations signed this agreement
  • The League of Nations the obvious group to
    enforce this treaty, had no armed forces

Kellogg Briand Pact
Financial Collapse
  • The US economic prosperity largely sustained the
    world economy
  • In 1929, US factories turned out nearly half the
    worlds industrial goods
  • This productivity led to enormous profits but the
    new wealth was not evenly distributed
  • The richest 5 of the population, received 33 of
    all personal income in 1929

Financial Collapse
  • 60 of all American families earned less than
    2,000 a year
  • Most families were too poor to buy the goods
    being produced
  • Unable to sell all their goods, store owners
    would cut back their orders from factories
  • Factories reduced production and laid-off
  • This began a downward economic spiral

Financial Collapse
Financial Collapse
  • Overproduction affected US farmers also
  • Scientific farming methods and new farm machinery
    dramatically increased crop yields
  • US farmers were producing more food, but faced
    new competition from farmers in Australia, Latin
    America, and Europe
  • There was a worldwide surplus of agricultural
    products which drove prices and profits down

Financial Collapse
  • Unable to sell their crops at a profit, many
    farmers could not pay off their bank loans
  • These unpaid debts weakened banks and forced some
    to close
  • This overproduction by factories and farms should
    have been a warning to those gambling on the
    stock market -- but no one heeded the warning

The Stock Market Crashes
  • 1929 New York Citys Wall Street financial
    capital of the world
  • Investors were optimistic about the booming
  • In order to invest in the boom economy many
    middle-income people bought stocks on margin
    (on credit).

The Stock Market Crashes
  • In September, 1929, some investors thought the
    stock prices were unnaturally high and started
    selling their stocks
  • By Thursday, October 24, the gradual lowering of
    stock prices became an all-out slide downward
  • This resulted in a panic! Everyone wanted to
    sell stocks and no one wanted to buy
  • On Tuesday, October 29, Black Tuesday, a record
    16 million stocks were sold and the market
    collapsed. This was the beginning of the Great

Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929
The Great Depression
  • Investors who bought stocks on margin could not
    pay what they owed and the stocks were now
  • Within months of the crash, unemployment rates
    began to rise and industrial production, prices,
    and wages declined
  • This long business slump would be called the
    Great Depression
  • The stock market crash alone did not cause the
    Great Depression but quickened the economys

The Great Depression
The Great Depression
  • By 1932, factory production was cut in half
  • Thousands of businesses failed and banks closed
  • 9 million people lost the money in their savings
    accounts from failed banks
  • Many farmers lost their lands because they could
    not make mortgage payments
  • In 1933, one-fourth of all American workers had
    no jobs

The Great Depression
Global Depression
  • The collapse of the American economy sent shock
    waves around the world
  • US bankers demanded repayment of their overseas
    loans and American investors withdrew their money
    from Europe the country hardest hit by this was
    Germany due to unpaid war debts and inflation of
    the German Mark.
  • The US market for European goods dropped sharply
    and Congress placed high tariffs (taxes) on
    imported goods so US dollars would stay in the
  • This policy backfired other countries imposed
    higher tariffs and world trade dropped by 65!
  • Unemployment rates soared!

The World Confronts Crisis
  • Britain takes Steps to Improve its Economy
  • Voters elected multiparty coalition known as
    National Government
  • Passed high protective tariffs
  • Increased taxes
  • Regulated the currency
  • Lowered interest rates to encourage industrial
  • These measure brought a slow and steady recovery
  • By 1937, unemployment was cut in half and
    production was above 1929 levels
  • Britain avoided political extremes and preserved

France Responds to Economic Crisis
  • Frances economy was more self-sufficient it
    was heavily agricultural and less dependent on
  • Still, by 1935, one million French workers were
  • This contributed to political instability In
    1933, 5 coalition governments formed and
  • Political leaders were frightened by the growth
    of antidemocratic forces in France and other
    parts of Europe

France Responds to Economic Crisis
  • In 1936, moderates, Socialists, and Communists
    formed a coalition The Popular Front
  • The Popular Front passed a series of reforms to
    help the workers
  • Price increases quickly offset wage gains
  • Unemployment remained high
  • France also preserved a democratic government

Socialist Governments Find Solutions
  • Socialist governments in Denmark, Sweden, and
    Norway met the challenge of economic crisis
    successfully Their recovery programs on existing
    tradition of cooperative community action
  • In Sweden government sponsored massive public
    works projects that kept people employed and
  • All Scandinavian countries raised pensions for
    elderly, increased unemployment insurance,
    subsides for housing, and other welfare benefits
  • These were paid for by taxes
  • Democracy remained intact

US Recovery
  • In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected
  • His confidence reassured the millions of
    Americans who felt bewildered by the Depression
  • New Deal large public works projects to provide
    jobs for unemployed increase in government
  • Government agencies gave financial help to
    businesses and farms
  • Large amounts of public money spent on welfare
    and relief programs.

Franklin D. Roosevelt
US Recovery
  • The Roosevelt administration believed government
    spending would create jobs and start a recovery
  • Regulations were imposed to reform the stock
    market and banking system
  • The New Deal did eventually reform the US
    economic system
  • Roosevelts leadership preserved the countrys
    faith in its democratic political system and
    established him as a leader of democracy in a
    world threatened by ruthless dictators