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Title: Presentation Plus! Subject: The American Republic Since 1877 Author: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, Inc. Last modified by: cfultz Created Date: 1/26/1998 10:35:12 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Splash%20Screen


1
Splash Screen
2
Intro 1
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3
Section 1-5
The French and Indian War
  • The conflict between the French and English over
    dominance in Europe in the late 1600s and 1700s
    finally spilled over in America.
  • Ohio became a source of struggle
  • -1754 Gov. of Va. Sent George Washington to
    survey the area
  • -encountering fire at Fort Duquesne, Washington
    built Fort Necessity, which was later captured
  • (Washington was allowed to leave unharmed)

4
Section 1-6
  • For the next two years, the French and Indian War
    was fought on the frontier.
  • The Treaty of Paris finally ended the war in
    1763, and for the most part eliminated French
    power in North America.

(pages 7475)
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5
  • Results of the F. I. War
  • Allowed colonists to spread further without fear
    of the Indians
  • -Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited colonial
    movement past the Appalachian Mountains
  • (2) Spanish pulled out of Florida (left only a
    small number of troops behind)
  • (3) Indians left without backup (many great
    leaders were killed )
  • (4) Allowed some to see our future one without
    the British

6
Section 1-14
The Colonies Grow Discontented
  • The 1763 British victory caused an enormous
    British debt.

-Britain looked to its colonies to help pay for
the war. -desire to keep the colonists under
their control prompted the British to pass a
controversial act.
(pages 7677)
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7
Section 1-18
Sugar Act in the colonies
-This act increased tax rates for raw sugar and
molasses. -It placed new taxes on silk, wine,
coffee, and indigo. -Colonists argued that they
were being taxed without representation in
Parliament.
8
Section 1-20
The Colonies Grow Discontented
(cont.)
What were the results of the French Indian War?
(pages 7677)
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9
Section 1-21
The Colonies Grow Discontented
(cont.)
George Grenville, the British prime minister,
implemented new tax policies in the colonies to
pay for the French and Indian War. One law sent
smugglers to a new vice-admiralty court run by
naval officers who were unsympathetic to
smugglers. The Sugar Act in the colonies changed
tax rates for raw sugar and molasses imported
from foreign colonies. It placed new taxes on
silk, wine, coffee, and indigo. Parliament also
passed the Currency Act of 1784. This banned the
use of paper money in the colonies, angering
colonial farmers and artisans who used paper
money to pay back loans.
(pages 7677)
10
Section 1-22
The Stamp Act Crisis
  • To raise more money to pay for the war,
    Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765.
  • -Stamps were required on most printed materials.
  • -The stamp tax was the first direct tax Britain
    had ever placed on the colonists.
  • The Quartering Act, 1765, forced the colonists to
    pay more for their own defense by providing
    places for British troops in the colonies to
    stay.
  • -Why?

(pages 7778)
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11
Section 1-24
The Stamp Act Crisis (cont.)
  • When the Stamp Act took effect, the colonists
    ignored it.
  • began to boycott British goods.
  • Colonial merchants signed a nonimportation
    agreement,
  • -agreeing not to buy any British goods until the
    Stamp Act was repealed.
  • The protests led to the Stamp Act being repealed
    in 1766.

(pages 7778)
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12
Section 1-26
The Stamp Act Crisis (cont.)
What acts did Parliament pass to raise money to
pay for the governments expenses in America?
To raise more money to pay for the war,
Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765. Stamps
were required on most printed materials. The
Quartering Act, passed by Parliament in 1765,
forced the colonists to pay more for their own
defense by providing places for British troops in
the colonies to stay.
(pages 7778)
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13
Section 1-32
The Townshend Acts (cont.)
  • On March 5, 1770, British troops fired into a
    crowd of colonists in Boston this became the
    Boston Massacre.

-The British were viewed as tyrants who were
killing people standing up for their rights.
-In response, Britain repealed the Townshend
Acts, leaving only one tax on tea to uphold its
right to tax the colonies.
(pages 7879)
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14
Section 2-8
Massachusetts Defies Britain (cont.)
Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773, -to help
the almost bankrupt East India Tea Company -which
made East Indias tea cheaper than smuggled Dutch
Tea. -American merchants feared it was the first
step by the British to force them out of business.
(pages 8285)
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15
Section 2-9
Massachusetts Defies Britain (cont.)
  • In December 1773, tea ships from the East India
    Company arrived in Boston Harbor.
  • -Colonists boarded the ship and dumped the tea
    into the harbor.
  • -This became known as the Boston Tea Party.
  • -Britain then passed some very harsh acts which
    punished the colonists.

(pages 8285)
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16
(No Transcript)
17
Section 2-18
The Revolution Begins (cont.)
  • On April 18, 1775, British General Gage and his
    troops set out to seize the militias supply
    depot at Concord Lexington
  • When the British arrived in Lexington, about 70
    minutemen were waiting for them.
  • The British fired at the minutemen, killing 8 and
    wounding 10.

(pages 8587)
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18
Section 2-21
The Revolution Begins (cont.)
  • After the battles at Lexington and Concord, the
    Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia
    to address the issue of defense.
  • On June 15, 1775, Congress appointed George
    Washington to head the Continental Army.

(pages 8587)
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19
Section 2-25
The Decision for Independence
  • In July 1775, the Continental Congress sent the
    Olive Branch Petition to the king.

-said that the colonies were still loyal to King
George III -asked the king to call off the army
while a compromise could be made. -tried to
make peace -he refused to look at it
(pages 8789)
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20
Section 2-30
  • In January 1776, Common Sense, by Thomas Paine,
    caused many coloniststo call for independence
    from Britain.
  • On July 4, 1776, Continental Congress accepted a
    document written by Thomas Jefferson.
  • -stated why the colonies had to separate
  • -pleaded with other countries to understand and
    not get involved
  • -Sent Declaration of Independence to King George
  • .

(pages 8789)
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21
Causes and Effects 3
22
M/C 3-1
23
  • Groups in America
  • (1) Americans who remained loyal to the king were
    called Loyalists, or Tories.
  • (2) The Patriots, or Whigs, thought the British
    were tyrants.
  • What groups of people made up each group?
  • (3) German Hessians- mercenaries hired to fight
    Americans

24
Section 3-7
The Opposing Sides
  • The British forces had to fight both the
    Continental army and local militias.

-These militias often used guerrilla warfare,
where they hid among trees and behind walls and
then ambushed the British troops. -British used
mercenaries from Germany (Hessians)
(pages 9495)
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25
Section 3-9
The Opposing Sides (cont.)
What disadvantages did the British forces and the
Continental army face in the war?
(pages 9495)
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26
Section 3-10
The Opposing Sides (cont.)
The British forces had to fight the Continental
army and local militias. These militias often
used guerrilla warfare, which was difficult to
defeat. The British were not united at home and
needed to win the war quickly and cheaply or
opinion in Parliament might shift to oppose the
war. The Continental army was inexperienced,
poorly equipped, and had difficulty enlisting and
keeping soldiers. The Continental army lacked the
power to tax, so it had a difficult time paying
for the war.
(pages 9495)
27
Section 3-14
The Northern Campaign
  • George Washington planned unexpected winter
    attacks against the British troops at Trenton and
    Princeton, New Jersey.
  • -crossed the Delaware on Christmas Eve

-Washington and his troops won these attacks -
defeated the Hessi -then headed into the hills of
northern New Jersey for the remainder of winter.
(pages 9597)
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28
  • In 1777, the British tried to achieve the goal of
    cutting new England off from the rest of the
    colonies.
  • General Burgoyne's large army was surrounded at
    Saratoga and surrendered.
  • The victory at Saratoga led to an alliance with
    France.
  • Both France and Spain worried about American
    expansion.

29
  • American forces in Pennsylvania were forced to
    retreat into Valley Forge.
  • By the end of 1778, the war remained a stalemate.
  • In the West, Ohio Indians allied with the British
    and attacked American settlements.

30
Section 3-19
The Northern Campaign (cont.)
Why was the British surrender at Saratoga a
turning point in the war for the Americans?
The American victory was a turning point because
it improved American morale and convinced France
to send troops to the American cause.
(pages 9597)
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31
Section 3-30
The War is Won
  • British General Cornwallis was to secure a naval
    base on the coast, and he headed to the coastal
    town of Yorktown.
  • On September 28, 1781, American and French troops
    surrounded Yorktown.
  • On October 19, 1781, British troops surrendered.

(pages 9899)
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32
Section 3-31
  • The Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3,
    1783.
  • In the treaty, the British recognized the United
    States as a new nation with the Mississippi River
    as its western border.
  • Now what to do? How do we establish a new
    government?
  • That will be answered in the next unit.

(pages 9899)
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33
Section 4-5
New Political Ideas
  • America had established a republic, or a form of
    government where power resides with a body of
    citizens with the right to vote.
  • In an ideal republic, all citizens are equal
    under the law and the government gets its
    authority from the people.

(pages 100102)
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34
Section 4-21
The Achievements of theConfederation
  • In November 1777, the Continental Congress
    adopted the Articles of Confederation.
  • This was a plan for a loose union of the states
    under Congress.

(pages 103105)
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35
Section 4-22
  • The Articles of Confederation set up a weak
    central government.
  • The Confederation Congress met just once a year.
  • It had the power to declare war, raise armies,
    and sign treaties.
  • It, however, did not have the power to impose
    taxes or regulate trade.

(pages 103105)
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36
M/C 4-3
37
Section 4-33
Weaknesses of the Cogress
  • Many Americans began to see the risk of having a
    weak central government.
  • -In 1786, Shays' Rebellion broke out in
    western Massachusetts when farmers closed down
    courts to prevent debt executions.
  • This worried Americans they argued for a
    stronger central government.

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38
Section 4-34
Weaknesses of the Congress
(cont.)
What weaknesses of the Confederation Congress led
to an argument for a stronger United States
government?
(pages 105106)
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39
Section 4-35
Weaknesses of the Congress
(cont.)
The Confederation Congress could not regulate
commerce, so the states set up customs posts on
their borders and levied taxes on other states
goods to raise money. The federal government had
no powers over the states, so it could not force
the states to pay their debts to Britain or to
return property to Loyalists as stated in the
Treaty of Paris. Congress had no way to raise
money to pay these debts. The limited powers of
the Confederation Congress prevented it from
working out a diplomatic solution with Spain.
(pages 105106)
40
Section 4-39
Critical Thinking
Analyzing How did fear of tyranny shape new
state constitutions andthe Articles of
Confederation?
New state constitutions and the Articles of
Confederation provided many individual freedoms
to prevent tyranny.
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41
Section 5-4
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42
  • A NEW NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
  • Nationalists argued for a stronger central
    government to deal with the economic crisis of
    the 1780s.
  • Representatives from five states met in
    Annapolis, calling for a convention to propose
    changes in the Articles of Confederation.
  • Congress endorsed a convention for ONLY revising
    the Articles of Confederation.
  • Fifty-five delegates from twelve states assembled
    in Philadelphia in May 1787.

43
Section 5-7
The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
  • Most of the 55 delegates to the Constitutional
    Convention had experience in government.
  • George Washington was presiding officer.
  • James Madison kept records of the debates.
  • The meetings were closed to the public.

(pages 108110)
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44
  • The New Jersey Plan proposed
  • -a weak executive of more than one person elected
    by Congress,
  • -a national judiciary with limited powers,
  • -and a one house legislature, with one vote for
    each state.
  • -This plan favored the small states.

45
  • The Virginia Plan proposed
  • -a strong executive,
  • -a national judiciary,
  • -and a strong two-house legislature in which the
    lower house would be chosen by the people and the
    upper house would be chosen by the lower house.
  • -This plan favored the large, more populous
    states.

46
Section 5-9
The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
  • The legislature should be divided into two
    houses.
  • Voters in each state would elect members of the
    first house.
  • Members of the second house would be elected by
    the first house.
  • The Virginia plan benefited states with large
    populations because in both houses, the number of
    representatives for each state would reflect the
    population of that state.

(pages 108110)
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47
Section 5-10
The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
B. The New Jersey Plan was offered as a
counterproposal.
  • This plan only revised the Articles of
    Confederation to make the central government
    stronger.
  • Congress would have a single house in which each
    state would be equally represented.

(pages 108110)
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48
Section 5-11
Solution Connecticut Compromise, which proposed
a legislative branch with two parts -a House of
Representatives with state representation based
on population -a Senate with two members from
each state, regardless of size. -This
compromise gave the large states an advantage
in the House and protected the smaller states
in the Senate.
49
Section 5-13
A Union Built on Compromise
  • The delegates of the Constitutional Convention
    were divided geographically.
  • The small states wanted changes that would
    protect them against the big states.
  • Northern and Southern states were divided over
    the issue of slavery in the new constitution.

(pages 110111)
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50
Section 5-16
A Union Built on Compromise (cont.)
  • The Three-Fifths Compromise came up with a plan
    for counting enslaved people in a state.
  • Every five enslaved people in a state would count
    as three free persons for determining both
    representation and taxes.
  • Southern delegates insisted that the new
    constitution forbid interference with the slave
    trade and limit Congresss power to regulate
    trade.

(pages 110111)
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51
Section 5-17
A Union Built on Compromise (cont.)
  • Northern delegates wanted a government with
    control over foreign imports into the United
    States.
  • A compromise over these issues said that the new
    Congress could not tax exports.
  • They also agreed that it could not ban the slave
    trade until 1808 or impose high taxes on the
    import of enslaved persons.

(pages 110111)
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52
Section 1-8
Creating a New Government (cont.)
  • In 1791 ten amendments to the Constitution went
    into effect.
  • These amendments, known as the Bill of Rights,
    offered safeguards for individual rights against
    actions of the federal government.

(pages 152153)
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53
Section 5-40
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Do you think the Founders were right
in making the amendment process difficult? Why or
why not?
Answers will vary.
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54
Section 5-12
The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
In what ways did the Virginia Plan and theNew
Jersey Plan differ?
The Virginia Plan wanted to throw out the
Articles of Confederation, while the New Jersey
Plan wanted to revise the Articles of
Confederation. The Virginia Plan called for two
houses of Congress with representation based on a
states population. The New Jersey Plan called
for one house of Congress with equal
representation. The Virginia Plan called for
three branches of government, the New Jersey Plan
did not.
(pages 108110)
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55
Section 5-19
A Framework for Limited Government
  • The Constitution was based on the principle of
    popular sovereignty, orrule by the people.
  • Also created a system of government called
    federalism, which is a divided government
    between the federal, or national, government and
    the state governments.

(pages 111112)
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56
Section 5-20
A Framework for Limited Government (cont.)
  • The Constitution provided for a separation of
    powers among the three branches of government.
  • The legislative branch makes the laws.
  • The executive branch enforces the laws.
  • The judicial branch interprets federal laws.

(pages 111112)
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57
Section 5-24
A Framework for Limited Government (cont.)
  • The Constitution has a system for making
    amendments, or changes to the Constitution.
  • There is a two-step process for amending the
    Constitutionproposal and ratification.
  • There have been 27 amendments so far.

(pages 111112)
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58
Section 5-26
A Framework for Limited Government (cont.)
How does the Constitution provide for a
separation of powers?
(pages 111112)
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59
Section 5-27
A Framework for Limited Government (cont.)
It provides for three branches of government. The
legislative branch makes the laws. It is made up
of the two houses of Congress. The executive
branch enforces the laws. It is headed by a
president. The judicial branch interprets federal
laws. It is made up of a system of federal courts.
(pages 111112)
60
Chapter Summary 1
61
Chapter Assessment 5
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)
Why did King George III issue the Proclamation of
1763?
King George issued the Proclamation of 1763 to
prevent war with Native Americans over the
settlement of the land west of the Appalachian
Mountains.
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62
Chapter Assessment 8
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)
How did the Founders provide for a separation of
powers in the federal government?
They specified three branchesexecutive,
legislative, and judicialeach with specific
powers. The legislative branch would make laws
the executive branch would implement and enforce
laws, and the judicial branch would interpret
laws. No one is allowed to serve in more than one
branch at the same time.
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display the answer.
63
Chapter Assessment 9
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Themes Civic Rights and
Responsibilities What rights did the colonists
want from Britain?
The colonists wanted the right to tax themselves,
trial by jury, protection against home searches
without a warrant, and government seizing
property without court proceedings.
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display the answer.
64
Chapter Assessment 10
Critical Thinking (cont.)
Evaluating In the colonies, Thomas Paines
Common Sense influenced public opinion on the
issue of declaring independence. Why do you think
this happened?
Thomas Paines Common Sense influenced public
opinion because it spoke against the monarchy in
principle, and it roused the feelings of the
colonists.
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display the answer.
65
Chapter Assessment 11
Geography and History
The map below shows the land claims in North
America as a result of the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
Study the map and answer the questions on the
following slides.
66
Chapter Assessment 12
Geography and History (cont.)
Interpreting Maps What were the borders for the
United States after the war for independence?
The Mississippi River to the west, Canada to the
north, and the original colonies in the East
formed the borders.
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display the answer.
67
Chapter Assessment 13
Geography and History (cont.)
Applying Geography Skills Which countries shared
a border with the United States?
British-owned Canada, Spanish-owned Spanish
Louisiana, and New Spain shared a border with the
United States.
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display the answer.
68
Chapter Assessment 14
Directions Choose the best answer to the
following question.
Although the Coercive Acts were meant to punish
Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party, what
impact did they have on the rest of
thecolonies? A The acts caused trade in other
harbors to suffer as well. B The acts caused the
other colonies to fear standing up to the
king. C The acts were so harsh that other
colonies wanted to fight back against the
king. D The acts caused the colonies to respond
with their own laws, called the Intolerable Acts.
Test-Taking Tip Eliminate answers that dont
make sense. For example, the colonies were
subject to the laws of the British government,
not the other way around, so choice D is
unlikely. (You may also remember that
Intolerable Acts was the nickname the colonists
gave to the Coercive Acts.)
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display the answer.
69
Chapter Assessment 15
What is the system by which the Constitution can
be revised?
The delegates provided for changes to the
Constitution through the amendment process.
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display the answer.
70
M/C 4-2
71
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1
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72
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2
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73
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3
The British forces appeared better prepared
because the British forces were nearly all
trained soldiers and sailors, whereas the
colonial forces were nearly all untrained
volunteers.
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74
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4
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display the answer.
75
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 5
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display the answer.
76
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