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Academic Career Trajectories in Europe and North America

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Academic Career Trajectories in Europe and North America Tenure Track in Decline or on the Rise? Hans Pechar Alpen Adria University, Austria – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Academic Career Trajectories in Europe and North America


1
Academic Career Trajectories in Europe and North
America
  • Tenure Track in Decline or on the Rise?
  • Hans Pechar
  • Alpen Adria University, Austria

2
  • Different Concerns
  • A Modest Typology
  • Habilitation Model History
  • Habilitation/Tenure Track compared
  • GER/AT Reform Initiatives
  • Different Concerns

3
Different Concerns
  • North America decline TT positions
  • tenure-track an obsolete model?
  • how much are research universities affected?
  • Germanic Countries TT a Role Model?
  • relationship between academic status groups (what
    is an assistant professor?)
  • transparent career trajectories reduce risk in
    early career stages

4
  • Different Concerns
  • A Modest Typology
  • Habilitation Model History
  • Habilitation/Tenure Track compared
  • GER/AT Reform Initiatives
  • Different Concerns

5
Tenure, TT, Habilitation
  • UK/SWE/NL Lecturers/Senior Lecturers have
    permanent positions (tenure)
  • only a minority is promoted to full professor
    (SWE 1/3, UK 1/4)
  • North America those who enter tenure track are
    expected to become a full professor
  • Habilitation model only full professors should
    have permanent positions
  • Junior faculty trainees on fixed term positions

6
Tenure (FRA/UK), TT (US), Habilitation (GER)
Source Kreckel 2012
7
Different Habilitation Systems (CZE/GER/CH/AT)
Source Kreckel 2012
8
  • Different Concerns
  • A Modest Typology
  • Habilitation Model History
  • Habilitation/Tenure Track compared
  • GER/AT Reform Initiatives
  • Different Concerns

9
Origin of Habilitation Model
  • Early 1800s departure from family university
    (academic dynasties)
  • Raising quality standards
  • from preservation of traditional knowledge to
    creation of new knowledge
  • dissertation written by students, not professor
  • habilitation (private docent) entry
    qualification for academic career

10
Chair structure
  • University Federation of many small
    principalities
  • One professor/institute - represents the
    discipline comprehensively
  • Little formal structure, huge discretionary
    power, strong personal dependence
  • Future academics apprentices under his
    supervision

11
Academic Charisma
  • Research not a profession but charismatic
    (extramundane) activity
  • With some talent, effort, and persistence one
    can become a competent civil servant one is a
    researcher by grace of God
  • Charisma cannot be learned, it has to reveal
    itself in an appropriate setting

12
Max Weber on Charisma
  • Charisma is a certain quality of an individual
    personality by virtue of which he is set apart
    from ordinary men and treated as endowed with
    supernatural, superhuman, or at least
    specifically exceptional powers or qualities.
    These are not accessible to the ordinary person,
    but are regarded as of divine origin

13
Charismatic Mode of Selection
  • Private docent no salary, only student fees
  • inner calling devotedness sacrifices
  • must not apply wait for a call
  • Undermined by expansion
  • increase of professors does not match the growth
    of the system
  • tensions between academic estates

14
Max Weber on Risk Career
  • For it is extremely hazardous for a young
    scholar without funds to expose himself to the
    conditions of the academic career (...) whether
    such a private lecturer will ever succeed in
    moving into the position of a full professor
    (...) is simply a hazard. (...) I know of hardly
    any career on earth where chance plays such a
    role

15
Mass HE
  • Most of teaching/research is done by
    non-professorial faculty
  • Improved social rights but still regarded as
    qualification position (no career track)
  • Conflicts about representation in collegial
    bodies (struggle for quotas)

16
  • Different Concerns
  • A Modest Typology
  • Habilitation Model History
  • Habilitation/Tenure Track compared
  • GER/AT Reform Initiatives
  • Different Concerns

17
  • Tenure Track
  • Habilitation Model
  • Less demanding doctorate (Habil!!)
  • Internal recruitment (sponsored mobility)
  • Assistant literally, assigned to professor,
    qualification period within familiar network
  • Rigorous PhD
  • Required mobility (contest mobility)
  • Assistant Prof independent academic career
    trial period in unfamiliar territory

18
  • Tenure Track
  • Habilitation Model
  • Habilitation venia legendi, no permanent
    contract
  • Application for full professor (required
    mobility), imbalance applicants/professorial
    positions
  • Tenure evaluation (up or out) permanent
    contract dependent on achievement
  • Promotion to full professor at home institution
    (dependent on achievement)

19
Status Groups - Quantitative Relations
AT
US
Source Kreckel 2008
20
Status Groups - Qualitative Relations
highly seperated tracks vs flat hierarchy
AT
US
required mobility
required mobility
21
Crucial Differences
  • Habilitation insider orientation below
    professoriate juniors remain within familiar
    networks selective career step late (prolongs
    uncertainty) categorical differences between
    status groups (impedes solidarity)
  •  
  • Tenure Track selective recruitment at early
    stage allows for regular promotion within a
    career track gradual differences between status
    groups (conducive for solidarity)

22
  • Different Concerns
  • A Modest Typology
  • Habilitation Model History
  • Habilitation/Tenure Track compared
  • GER/AT Reform Initiatives
  • Different Concerns

23
Germany Junior Professor
  • Initiated by the federal government in 2002
  • projected 6000 positions by 2009, in fact 1000
  • without TT (fixed term contract, 6 years)
  • not assigned to full professor
  • with TT (promotion to full professor possible)
  • only 6 of all Junior professors ( 60!!)
  • Technical University Munich TT (2012)

24
Austrian Tenure Track
  • Collective agreement (2009) TT terminology
    without substance
  • assistant professor university may offer a
    position to promising doctoral students
  • 90 of all positions recruited internally
  • full professor call required (unbridgeable
    disjunction)
  • no promotion from associate to full professor
  • Permanent Mittelbau possible

25
  • Different Concerns
  • A Modest Typology
  • Habilitation Model History
  • Habilitation/Tenure Track compared
  • GER/AT Reform Initiatives
  • Different Concerns

26
North American Concerns
quantitative relation core/periphery
TT long-term commitment
TA, RA, sessionals flexibility
27
Germanic Concerns
  • Qualitative structure of core
  • Some doctoral students 'core
  • Qualitative relations within core
  • cleavage, steep hierarchy
  • below pofessoriate no commitment, success not
    projectable, uncalculable
  • extreme 'risk career'

28
Thanks for your Attention
29
Further Reading
  • Ben-David, J. (1991). 'The Profession of Science
    and Its Powers'. In Scientific Growth. Essays
    on the Social Organization and Ethos of Science
    (pp. 187-209). Berkeley University of California
    Press.
  •  Busch, A. (1963). The Vicissitudes of the
    "Privatdozent" Breakdown and Adaptation in the
    Recruitment of the German University Teacher,
    Minerva, Vol. 1, pp.319-341
  • Clark, W. (2006). Academic Charisma and the
    Origin of the Research University. Chicago
    University of Chicago Press.
  • Kreckel, R. (Hg) (2008) Zwischen Promotion und
    Professur. Das wissenschaftliche Personal in
    Deutschland im Vergleich mit Frankreich,
    Großbritannien, USA, Schweden, den Niederlanden,
    Österreich und der Schweiz. Leipzig Akademische
    Verlagsanstalt.
  •  Metzger, W. P. (1987). 'Academic Profession in
    United States'. In B. R. Clark (Ed.), The
    academic profession National, disciplinary, and
    institutional settings (pp. 123-208) Berkeley,
    CA University of California Press.
  • Neave, G. Rhoades, G. (1987). 'The academic
    estate in Western Europe'. In B. R. Clark (Ed.),
    The academic profession National, disciplinary,
    and institutional settings (pp. 211-270)
    Berkeley, CA University of California Press.
  • Schimank, U. (2006). Unsolved problems and
    inadequate solutions The situation of academic
    staff in German higher education. In J. J. F.
    Forest P. G. Altbach (Eds.), International
    handbook of higher education (pp. 115-136).
    Dordrecht, NL Springer.
  • Schmeiser, M. (1994). Akademischer Hasard. Das
    Berufsschicksal des Professors und das Schicksal
    der deutschen Universität 1870 - 1920. Stuttgart
    Klett.
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