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Global Warming

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Global Warming Public perception Physics of anthropogenic global warming Key diagrams Consequences What can you do? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Warming


1
Global Warming
  • Public perception
  • Physics of anthropogenic global warming
  • Key diagrams
  • Consequences
  • What can you do?

2
Do you think Global Warming is happening?
3
Americans Top 4 Gaps in Understanding Climate
Change
  • 1. Its happening now
  • 2. Its us
  • 3. We have a choice
  • 4. Scientists agree

Results of recent study by the Yale Project on
Climate Change Communication
4
Its happening now
  • 2011 was the 35th year in a row that the global
    temperature was above average.
  • That means half of all Americans have never lived
    through a year that was below average.

5
State of the Climate 2009 Highlights (NOAA 2010)
6
State of the Climate 2009 Highlights (NOAA 2010)
7
State of the Climate 2009 Highlights (NOAA 2010)
8
State of the Climate 2009 Highlights (NOAA 2010)
9
What causes Global Warming?
  • Addition of greenhouse gases to atmosphere
  • Main culprits are Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and
    water

10
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11
Basic Physics
  • Greenhouse gases trap heat in Earths atmosphere
  • Greenhouse gas concentrations have risen
  • Trapped radiation has been measured
  • Planet will warm!!!!

12
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13
Heat-Trapping Blanket
NASA, handweaver.com
14
Its us
  • Half of human CO2 emissions are added to
    atmospheric CO2 concentrations each year
  • Since 1958, CO2 concentrations have risen from
    315 ppm (parts per million) to 392 ppm in 2011
    (about 2 ppm per year)
  • Other greenhouse gases have risen as well

15
CS Fig. 15.17
15
16
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17
Measured Changes in Outgoing Radiation 1970-1997
18
18
Similar to CS Fig. 15.20
19
CS Fig. 15.19
20
CS Fig. 15.20
20
21
Carbon emissions since 1800
Fig. 15.20
22
Has the burning of fossil fuels resulted in
increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere?
  • Yes!
  • Measurements of air in Hawaii
  • Measurements of ancient air preserved in ice

23
Bubbles in glacial ice preserve air of past
cent- uries Tell us what CO2 concentrations were
like before the industrial revolution
24
Longer records
Current CO2 levels are well above range
observed during recent geologic history
associated with the ice ages
25
Best evidence that recent warming is anthropogenic
Three years in the 1990s are the warmest in
the Northern Hemisphere, by far, of the last 400
years!
Data from Mann and others, Nature, 1998 Figure
from IPCC 2001 Report
26
Figure 15_19
CS Fig. 15.21
27
Consequences
  • Planet will warm
  • High latitudes will warm more than low latitudes
  • Sea level will rise
  • Questions
  • How fast will warming and sea level rise occur?
  • How will Earths weather patterns be affected?

28
CS Fig. 15.18
29
Fig. 15.24 Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National
Park 1n 1914 and 1998. At present rates of
melting, there will be no glaciers in Glacier
National Park by 2030.
30
Global Temperatures projected to rise3 to gt7 C
IPCC 2009
Fig. 15.22
31
Number of days over 100 degrees F
USGCRP 2009 Climate Assessment
32
32
33
Figure 15_25b
34
Figure 15_25a
Fig. 15.25a Models predict warmer, wetter winters
and drier summers by 2100. Midwestern farm states
will have summer climate similar to current
summers in Louisiana or Texas. USGRP 2009.
35
CS Fig. 15.26
36
Change in Minnesota
Recent research indicates a warming trend in
Minnesota. A study of the climate record at Fort
Snelling shows an increase of 2.9F in average
annual temperature between the 1860s and 1987,
almost three times the worldwide average.
Analyses of more than a hundred temperature-depth
profiles in North America show that ground
latitudes comparable to Minnesotas indicated
ground warming of up to 3.6F. From Playing
with Fire, Global Warming in Minnesota 1999
data from Baker and Skaggs, 1989
37
Change in Lake Superior
38
MN Biomes at risk
39
We have a choice
http//www.geograph.org.uk/photo/764803
40
How optimistic are you?
41
An economists view
  • Sir Nicholas Stern, former chief economist of the
    World Bank
  • Scientific evidence is overwhelming climate
    change is a serious global threat and demands an
    urgent global response.
  • Costs of climate change will be 5 to 20 of
    global GDP
  • Reducing greenhouse emissions will cost 1 of
    global GDP
  • 1 spent now could save 20 later in the century

42
Scientific consensus
Examining the Scientific Consensus on Climate
Change EOS, VOLUME 90 NUMBER 3 20 JANUARY 2009
43
Somerville and Hassol, Physics Today, Oct. 2011
44
The End
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