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Biology EOC Highlight Review

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Biology EOC Highlight Review Courtesy of Mr. S. Russillo, with some adaptations Biomes Innate Behavior Behaviors an animal is born with Includes suckling ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biology EOC Highlight Review


1
Biology EOC Highlight Review
Courtesy of Mr. S. Russillo, with some
adaptations
2
Biology is a Science
  • Observation vs Inference
  • Experimental Design
  • Independent variable
  • Dependent variable
  • Controlled variable
  • Graphing rules
  • Use math to analyze data
  • Use tools to measure (in metrics!)

3
Characteristics of Life
  • Made of one or more cells
  • Display organization
  • Grow and develop
  • Reproduce
  • Respond to stimulus
  • Require energy
  • Maintain homeostasis
  • Adaptations evolve over time

4
Viruses
  • Not considered living things
  • Pathogens that can mutate to resist vaccines
  • Acellular
  • Require a host cell to reproduce
  • Ex. HIV, Influenza,
  • Smallpox

5
Review of Matter
  • Elements vs Compounds
  • Atoms vs Molecules
  • Subatomic particles
  • Atomic number
  • Atomic mass
  • Ion
  • Isotopes
  • Bonds
  • Ionic
  • Covalent
  • Hydrogen

6
Chemical Reactions
  • Reactants
  • Products

7
Enzymes
  • Catalysts in living things
  • Specific to a particular substrate
  • Reusable
  • Affected by temperature and pH (denatured)

8
Enzymes reduce activation energy
9
Water
  • Necessary for life
  • Polar covalent bond polar molecule
  • Properties
  • Universal solvent
  • Density of ice
  • Adhesion
  • Cohesion
  • Holds onto a considerable amount of heat

10
Water Cycle
11
pH
  • Water molecules naturally dissociate (fall apart)
  • Acids more H than OH-, pH 1-6
  • Bases more OH- than H pH 8-12

12
Organic Compounds
  • All living things are made of organic compounds.
  • Contain the element Carbon

13
Why carbon?
  • Can make 4 covalent bonds
  • Can bond to itself and a variety of other
    elements
  • Can make a variety of shapes
  • Can make chains of varying lengths

14
Other important elements in living things
  • Hydrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Phosphorus
  • Nitrogen
  • Sulfur

15
Macromolecules
  • Large molecules built of subunits (monmers)
  • Four classes Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids,
    Nucleic Acids

16
  • Built by dehydration synthesis (condensation)
  • Broken down by hydrolysis

17
Carbohydrates
  • Monomer- monosaccharide
  • Function- energy source, storage, and structure
  • Tests glucose-Benedicts
  • starch- Iodine

fructose
  • Ex. Cellulose, glycogen, starch

18
Lipids
  • Made of fatty acids and glycerol
  • HYDROPHOBIC
  • Function- energy storage, insulation, hormones,
    and water proofing
  • Tests brown paper test
  • Examples fats, waxes and steroids

Lipid vs. water
19
Nucleic Acids
  • Monomer- nucleotide
  • Function- carry genetic information
  • Ex. DNA and RNA

20
Proteins
  • Monomer- amino acids
  • Function- building and repairing cells,
    communication, enzymes, transport, and regulation
  • Tests- Biurets
  • Examples enzymes,
  • hemoglobin

21
Carbon Cycle
  • Photosynthesis
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Decomposition
  • Combustion
  • Autotrophs
  • Heterotrophs

22
Autotroph vs. Heterotroph
  • Obtain energy from the environment
  • Photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
  • Producers
  • Obtain energy from other living things
  • Consumers

23
Cell Theory
  • All living things are composed of one or more
    cells
  • Cells are the basic unit of structure and
    organization of all living organisms
  • Cells arise only from previously existing cells,
    with cells passing copies of their genetic
    material on to their daughter cells

24
Cells
  • Prokaryotes
  • Simple, no membrane bound organelles
  • Bacteria only
  • One circular chromosome
  • Includes chromosome, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and
    plasma membrane
  • SMALL
  • Eukaryotes
  • Membrane bound organelles
  • Plants and Animals
  • True nucleus containing chromosomes

25
Nucleus
  • Control Center
  • Contains chromosomes

26
Mitochondria Singular Mitochondrion
  • Powerhouse of the cell
  • Produces energy in the form of ATP
  • Site of Aerobic respiration

27
Chloroplast
  • Site of photosynthesis
  • Plant cells ONLY
  • Contains the pigment chlorophyll

28
Vacuole
  • Storage of excess materials water, waste,
    nutrients
  • Plant cells usually contain one large vacuole

29
Ribosomes
  • Proteins are synthesized
  • Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

30
Plasma Membrane aka Cell Membrane
  • Surrounds the cell
  • Regulates what enters/leaves the cell
  • Helps maintain homeostasis
  • Made of phospholipids with embedded proteins
    (lipid bilayer, fluid mosaic model)

31
Cell Wall
  • Plant and fungi and bacterial cells ONLY
  • Surrounds cell and provides support and
    protection.
  • Made of cellulose in plants (chitin in fungi,
    peptidoglycan in bacteria)

32
Extracellular features movement through watery
environment
  • Cilia hairs
  • Flagella tails

33
Eukaryotes
  • Plant
  • Animal
  • Cell wall
  • Chloroplast
  • Large central vacuole

34
Cell Organization
  • Cell
  • Tissue
  • Organ
  • Organ System
  • Individual organism

35
Cell Specialization
  • cells develop to perform different functions
  • Form directly related to function
  • Regulated by genes all have same genes, only
    certain ones are activated

36
Cell to Cell Communication
  • Chemical Signals (hormones) can be sent from one
    cell to another
  • Receptor proteins on the plasma membrane receive
    the signal

37
Cells have needs
  • Need nutrients and oxygen
  • Need to remove wastes
  • ? Cell transport
  • Substances must cross membrane ? selective
    permeability
  • Active vs Passive

38
Diffusion
  • Form of passive transport (NO ENERGY NEEDED)
    across a membrane
  • Solutes move from high concentration to low
    concentration

39
Osmosis
  • Diffusion of water (also passive transport)

40
Facilitated Diffusion
  • Also passive transport
  • Molecules move from high to low concentration
  • Require a channel protein

41
Active Transport
  • Particles moving against the concentration
    gradient which REQUIRES ENERGY (ATP)
  • Low concentration to high concentration
  • Requires transport protein

42
  • Endocytosis
  • Exocytosis

43
comparison
  • Passive transport
  • Active transport
  • Molecules move from high to low
  • Move WITH concentration gradient
  • Continues until dynamic equilibrium is reached
  • No energy required
  • Molecules move from low to high
  • Move against concentration gradient
  • Maintains concentration differences
  • Requires energy

44
ATP
  • Energy storing molecule
  • Can be used for quick energy by the cell
  • Energy is stored in the phosphate bonds

45
Photosynthesis
  • Water and Carbon Dioxide used to produce Glucose
    and Oxygen
  • H2OCO2?C6H12O6O2
  • Occurs in the chloroplast

46
Aerobic Respiration
  • Used to release energy (ATP) for cellular use
  • C6H12O6O2?H2OCO2
  • Occurs in the mitochondria

47
Anaerobic Respiration aka Fermentation
  • Does not require Oxygen
  • also used to release energy, but not as efficient
    as aerobic respiration (less ATP)
  • Products include CO2 and lactic acid or alcohol
  • Two Types Alcoholic Fermentation and Lactic Acid
    Fermentation

48
Body systems
49
DNA / RNA
  • Carry genetic information
  • Made of a chain of nucleotides
  • Nucleotides contain a sugar, phosphate, and a
    nitrogen base

50
DNA / RNA
  • DNA
  • Double stranded
  • Double Helix
  • Four base pairs ATGC
  • Sugar is Deoxyribose
  • Found in nucleus
  • RNA
  • Single stranded
  • Four base pairs AUCG
  • Sugar is Ribose

51
Chargaffs Base Pair Rule
  • In DNA,
  • Adenine always pairs with Thymine, and
  • Guanine always pairs with Cytosine

52
Replication
  • Making of an identical strand of DNA
  • semi conservative

53
Central Dogma
  • DNA ? RNA ? protein ? trait

54
Transcription
  • DNA?mRNA
  • Occurs in nucleus
  • Complementary mRNA strand is produced from a
    segment of DNA

55
Translation
  • Connects amino acids in the correct order to make
    a protein
  • Occurs in the cytoplasm within the ribosomes

A- amino acid B- tRNA C- anticodon D- codon E-
mRNA F- Ribosome G-polypeptide
56
Codon
  • Sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that code for
    an amino acid

57
Mutations
  • Change in DNA code
  • May cause a change in protein produced
  • NOT always harmful

Sickle Cell Mutation
58
Mitosis
  • Cell division
  • Produces two identical diploid daughter cells
  • Occurs in body cells to grow and repair

59
Cancer
  • Error in cell growth with causes uncontrolled
    cell growth
  • Has environment and genetic variables

60
Meiosis
  • Cell division
  • Produces four different haploid daughter cells
    (gametes)
  • Occurs in sex cells to form gametes

61
Crossing Over
  • Homologous chromosomes exchange parts of their
    DNA
  • Creates variation in gametes

62
Nondisjunction
  • Homologous chromosomes fail to separate during
    meiosis
  • Can lead to Down Syndrome, Turners Syndrome, and
    Klinefelters Syndrome

63
Karyotype
  • Picture of someone's chromosomes
  • Can detect chromosomal disorders

Ex. Down Syndrome, Klinefelters Syndrome, and
Turners Syndrome
64
Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction
  • Asexual
  • One parent
  • Identical offspring
  • Variation only thru mutations
  • Examples budding, fragmentation, fission
  • Sexual
  • Two parents
  • Offspring different from parents
  • More variation
  • Fertilization (fusion of gametes)

65
Inheritance
  • Traits are specific characteristics inherited
    from parents
  • Genes are the factors that determine traits
  • The different forms of a gene are called alleles

66
Dominant/Recessive Alleles
  • Dominant alleles are expressed, if present, and
    recessive are hidden

67
Genotype actual alleles an individual has for a
trait
  • Homozygous
  • Both alleles are the same
  • Ex. BB or bb
  • Heterozygous
  • Both alleles are different
  • Ex. Bb

68
Phenotype
  • The actual characteristic displayed by the
    individual (ex. brown eyes, Hemophiliac)

69
Incomplete Dominance
  • Heterozygote shows a blending of the dominant and
    recessive phenotypes

70
Codominance
  • Heterozygote expresses BOTH dominant and
    recessive traits
  • Ex. Roan animals

71
Polygenic Traits
  • Traits are influenced by more than one gene
  • Ex. skin color

72
Multiple Alleles
  • More than two alleles for a trait (an individual
    still only inherits two)
  • Ex. Blood Type (IA,IB, i)
  • type A IAIA or IAi
  • type B IBIB or IBi
  • type AB IAIB
  • type O ii

73
Sex Linked Traits
  • Sex Chromosomes
  • Female XX
  • Male XY
  • Sex linked traits are carried on the X chromosome
  • Ex. Hemophilia, red-green colorblindness

74
Test Cross
  • used to determine the phenotype of an unknown
    dominant individual
  • uses a homozygous recessive individual as the
    test

75
Pedigree
  • similar to a family tree
  • Shows pattern of inheritance of a specific trait
    through a family

76
Genetic Disorders and the Environment
  • Many diseases have both genetic and environmental
    factors
  • Ex. Cancer, diabetes, PKU

77
Human Genome Project
  • Sequencing of human DNA
  • Being used to develop gene therapies

78
Gel Electrophoresis
  • Technique used to separate molecules (DNA or
    proteins) based on their size
  • Sometimes called a DNA fingerprint
  • Used to analyze and compare DNA

79
Recombinant DNA
  • Cell with DNA from another source
  • Bacteria used to produce human insulin
  • Human gene inserted into bacterial plasmid

80
Transgenic Organism
  • An organism with a gene from another source
  • used to improve food supply, research, and
    healthcare

81
Clone
  • An organism made from one cell of another
    organism
  • A genetically identical copy

82
Origin of Life
  • Abiotic earth LACKED Oxygen
  • Early organims anaerobic prokaryotes

Miller and Urey Experiment recreating The
abiotic atomospere
83
Endosymbiotic Theory
  • Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes
  • Early prokaryotes engulfed other prokaryotes and
    developed symbiotic relationships
  • Evidence includes mitochondria and chloroplast
    have prokaryotic type DNA

84
  • Abiogenesis
  • Biogenesis
  • Living from non-living or spontaneous generation
  • Disproved by Redi and Pasteurs experiments
  • Living from Living

85
Evolution
  • Change in a population over time
  • Charles Darwin
  • Changes in allele frequencies

86
Natural Selection
  • Fit organisms survive, reproduce, and pass on
    traits
  • Requirements
  • Variation
  • Competition

87
Adaptations
  • Trait that increases survival
  • For Example,
  • Beaks that make it easier to eat insects
  • Bright flowers to attract pollinators
  • Vascular tissue in plants to adapt to life on land

88
Evidence for Evolution
  • Fossil Record
  • Biochemical Similarities
  • Shared anatomical structures

89
Antibiotic and Pesticide Resistance
  • Populations will eventually become resistant to
    pesticides and antibiotics with overuse

90
Coevolution
  • Two organisms evolve in response to each other

Ex. Flowering plants and their pollinators
91
Effects of Natural Selection
92
Also
  • Artificial selection
  • Sexual selection

93
Fossil Records
  • Punctuated equilibrium
  • gradualism

94
Speciation
  • Evolution of a new species
  • Species can reproduce and produce fertile
    offspring
  • must be isolation between populations

95
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Two word naming system
  • Scientific name
  • Uses Genus and Species names
  • Ex. Dogs Canis familiaris

96
Dichotomous Keys
  • Used to identify organisms
  • Paired set of questions with two choices

97
Levels of Organization
98
Phylogenic tree
99
More closely related organisms will have
  • more commonalities in DNA and protein sequences
  • Common structures built with same bones

100
Protists
  • Unicellular Eukaryotes
  • Can be autotrophic or heterotrophic
  • Reproduce mostly asexually

101
Fungi
  • Multicellular eukaryotes
  • (yeast are the only unicellular fungi)
  • Heterotrophs
  • Reproduce asexually and sexually

102
Plants
  • Multicelluar eukaryotes
  • Autotrophs
  • Reproduce sexually and asexually

103
Non Vascular Plants
  • Also called Bryophytes
  • No true roots or vascular tissue causing them to
    be small in size
  • Must live in moist environments
  • Reproduce with spores

Ex. Mosses, liverworts
104
Gymnosperms
  • Non-flowering vascular plants
  • Reproduce with
  • cones that contain seeds
  • Ex. Conifers (pine trees)

105
Angiosperms
  • Flowering vascular plants
  • Flower is main reproductive organ
  • Seeds are enclosed within a fruit
  • Ex. Deciduous plants

106
Movement of materials
107
reproduction
108
Animals
  • Multicellular eukaryotes
  • Heterotrophs
  • Reproduce sexually and asexually

109
Insects
  • Transport through open circulatory system
  • Exchange gases through spiracles and tracheal
    tubes
  • Most reproduce sexually with internal
    fertilization
  • Develop through metamorphosis

110
Annelids (segmented worms)
  • Transport through closed circulatory system
  • Exchange gases through moist skin
  • Reproduce asexually and sexually with internal
    fertilization

111
Fish
  • Vertebrates
  • Aquatic
  • Jaws
  • Paired fins
  • Scales
  • Gills
  • Single loop circulatory system

112
Amphibians
  • Transport through a closed circulatory system
    involving a three chambered heart
  • Gas exchange in young with gills, adults lungs
    and moist skin
  • Reproduce sexually with external fertilization
  • Develop through metamorphosis

113
Reptiles
  • vertebrates
  • Fully adapted to life on land
  • Shelled egg
  • Scales
  • Lungs for gas exchange
  • Double circulation

114
Birds
  • Vertebrates
  • Endotherms
  • Feathers
  • Lightweight bones
  • 4 chambered heart

115
Mammals
  • closed circulatory system involving a four
    chambered heart
  • Gas exchange through lungs
  • Reproduce sexually with internal fertilization
  • Young develop in a uterus and exchange nutrients
    and oxygen through the placenta (placental
    mammals)
  • Endotherms
  • Hair
  • Milk

116
Ecosystems
  • Collection of abiotic (nonlivng) and biotic
    (living) factors in an area
  • Together they influence growth, survival, and
    productivity of an organism

117
Matter cycles, energy flows
118
Trophic Levels
  • Steps in a food chain/web
  • Energy passes from one organism to another
  • About 10 of the energy at one level passes to
    the next

119
Predation
  • Predator eats prey
  • Evolve in response to one another

120
competition
  • When organisms fight for access to the same
    resource
  • Intraspecific same species
  • Interspecific different species

121
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Relationship between two organisms in which one
    benefits
  • Types
  • Mutualism (,)
  • Parasitism (,-)
  • Commensalism (, o)

122
Population growth
  • Exponential
  • Logistic

123
Carrying Capacity
  • Maximum number of individuals that an ecosystem
    can sustainably support
  • Limiting factors
  • Food availability
  • Competition
  • Disease
  • Predation
  • Natural Disasters

124
Human Population
  • Growth birth rate-death rate

125
Human Impacts
  • Negative
  • Positive
  • Acid Rain
  • Deforestation
  • Habitat Destruction
  • Invasive Species
  • Ozone depletion from the release of CFCs
  • Reforestation
  • Cover Cropping
  • Recycling
  • Sustainable practice

126
Global Warming
  • Increase in the average temperature of the earth
  • Caused by the release of too much CO2 into the
    atmosphere which amplifies the greenhouse effect
  • Burning of fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions

127
Bioaccumulation
  • An increase in environmental toxins at higher
    tropic levels
  • Ex. DDT and birds of prey

128
succession
  • Changes in an ecosystem over time
  • Primary succession very beginning

129
  • Secondary succession life makes a comeback after
    a catastrophe

130
Biomes
131
Innate Behavior
  • Behaviors an animal is born with
  • Includes suckling, migration, hibernation
  • Ex. weaving of spider webs

132
Learned Behavior
  • Behavior an animal acquires during its lifetime
  • Includes
  • Habituation
  • Conditioning
  • Trial and error

133
Social Behavior
  • Communication between individuals of the same
    species
  • Can be courtship, territorial or chemical
    (pheromones)
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