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Ancient Greece Culture and Society Foundations of the Modern World – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient%20Greece%20%20Culture%20and%20Society


1
Ancient Greece Culture and Society
  • Foundations of the Modern World

2
Overview
  • Greek Society
  • Literature
  • Philosophy
  • Religion and Mythology

3
The Rise of Humanism
  • "Man is the Measure of all Things"- Protagoras of
    Abdera (c. 480 - 410 B.C.)
  • Importance of the individual
  • Early communities were based on family
  • Colonists were rugged individuals
  • Humanism individuals
  • Uniqueness
  • Potential
  • Prerogatives (rights)

4
(No Transcript)
5
  • Athenian Democracy developed around the fifth
    century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a
    polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens
    and the surrounding territory of Attica. Athens
    is one of the first known democracies.

6
Greek Society
  • The flaw in Athenian democracy only for true
    citizens
  • Adult males, Athenian ancestry (15 )
  • Slaves
  • Foreigners, about 30
  • Worked shops, farms
  • Some special skills e.g. sculpture
  • Some mining, hard labour
  • Provided freedom to owners for politics
    philosophy
  • Women
  • Sparta - public freedom
  • Athens - confinement

7
Athenian Marriage
  • Men absolute household authority
  • Families arranged marriages, usually older man to
    young woman
  • Custom deemed necessary to protect male property
    citizenship rights
  • Women no formal education
  • Learned weaving, cooking
  • Patterns of the elite
  • Records written by upper classes

School boy - kylix 480 BC
Woman at home - kylix 480 BC
8
Separate Lives
  • Elite women
  • Had female slave attendants
  • Were confined to homes except for
  • funerals, festivals, visits to female relatives
  • Thesmophoria festival
  • 3-day camp
  • Mystery ritual
  • Plays
  • Antigone, Lysistrata
  • About assertive women
  • Elite men
  • Work, politics by day
  • Dined, slept in mens quarters

Daughters of Demeter - krater 440 BC
Hunting the lion
9
The Phylae
  • tribes largest political subgroups in polis
  • Athens 10 phylae
  • Kin groups
  • All citizens belonged
  • Religious
  • Own priests, temples
  • Military
  • Trained and served as hoplite units
  • Political
  • Own officials, representatives to Assembly and
    Council

10
Symposium
  • Means "drinking together"
  • Aristocratic social institution
  • After meal, men only
  • Private association of individuals
  • Slaves, musicians, dancers, prostitutes, young
    boys
  • Role of Conversation
  • Aristocratic males expected to participate
  • Debates on political philosophical issues,
    recitations of speeches poetry

11
Gymnasium
  • School for naked exercise
  • Public institution for training athletes
    (opposite of palaestra - private school for
    physical training)
  • Staff 10 gymnasiarchs, one from each tribe
  • Maintained gymnasium, paid athletes in training,
    held athletic festivals, supervised training
    staff
  • Facilities
  • dressing rooms, baths, training quarters,
    stadium, covered porticos for exercise lectures
    in philosophy, literature, and music
  • Athens three great public gymnasia Academy,
    Lyceum and Cynosarges

12
Greek Literature
  • Lyric poetry celebrating the individual
  • e.g. Sappho
  • Pre-Socratic Thinkers
  • Questions about nature
  • Air, earth, fire, water
  • Atomic theory
  • History
  • Logographers wrote historia, accounts of
    geography, cities, families
  • Herodotus 485 - 425 BC
  • First modern historian
  • Greek war with Persia, analyzed causes

Sappho Alcaeus
Herodotus of Halicarnassus
13
Greek Thinkers
  • Sophists (wise men)
  • Traveling teachers
  • Taught logic, public speaking
  • Rhetoric constructing persuasive arguments
  • Belief in Reason
  • phusis (nature) amoral, inhuman, often lethal
  • nomos (culture) custom, power of mind to order
    control

14
Socrates
  • 470 - 399 BC
  • Sculptor by trade
  • Life
  • Teacher, thinker
  • Company of young men
  • Deflated pretensions, challenged people to think
  • Socratic method asking probing questions
  • Death
  • Charged with
  • Corrupting youth
  • Not believing in gods
  • Condemned to death by drinking hemlock
  • Young men withdrew from public life

15
Plato
  • 428 - 347 BC
  • First truly literate generation
  • Founded school for young men
  • The Academy
  • Higher education, especially philosophy and
    mathematics
  • Wrote Dialogues
  • Socrates uses question and answer method
  • Meaning of justice, excellence, freedom
  • Best known Dialogue The Republic
  • Theory of Forms particular vs. ideal
  • Political Utopia philosopher kings

16
Aristotle
  • 384 - 322 BC
  • Born in Macedon, father physician to king
  • Educated at Platos Academy in Athens
  • Tutored Alexander the Great
  • Founded school in Athens, Lyceum
  • Peripatetics walking while lecturing
  • History, biology, zoology
  • Works De Anima, Poetics, Metaphysics
  • Covered every field of knowledge, established
    modern arts sciences
  • Only lecture notes survive remarkable range,
    sophistication, originality, systemization
  • Approach is empirical, pragmatic, worldly

17
Greek Religion
  • Eusebia
  • Piety, reverence for traditional gods
  • Concern for family, clan, polis
  • Public display to foster peace, avert disfavour
    of the gods
  • Rite of animal sacrifice, feasts of music drama
    dance sport
  • Philosophy
  • Cosmology origin of universe
  • Theology gods nature function
  • Psychology study of soul
  • Ethics man in society
  • Mysteries
  • Secret cults of individual gods
  • Two Goddesses of Eleusis, Dionysus

Sacrifice to Vesta - Goya
Wine for Dionysus
18
Public Worship
  • State-sponsored festivals
  • Civic pride personal piety
  • Central ritual sacrifice of animals
  • Temple gods residence in town
  • Gifts for favours
  • Cake, wine at altar
  • Luck, protection
  • Oracles
  • Sacred sites where gods spoke with humans about
    future
  • Sought by individuals, city-states
  • Oracle of Apollo at Delphi most sought

Temple of Athena
Temple of Apollo
19
Mythology
  • Living our myths
  • Not our history
  • Need for origin story
  • Literature is displaced mythology
  • Basic stories of our culture
  • Repeated in modern forms
  • Anthropomorphic gods
  • Looking acting human

20
Principal Deities
  • Titans
  • Cronus Gaia
  • Olympians
  • Zeus and Hera
  • Apollo Artemis
  • Aphrodite Athena
  • Poseidon Hades
  • Ares Hermes
  • Other Gods
  • Dionysus, Eros, Pan, The Muses

Zeus and Titan
Aphrodite Adonis (David)
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