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The Great War Begins


The Great War Begins Chapter 14 section 1 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great War Begins

The Great War Begins
  • Chapter 14 section 1

Alliances Draw Lines
  • In 1882, German leader Otto Von Bismarck signed
    treaties with other powers. These powers were
    Austria-Hungary and Italy and they formed the
    Triple Alliance.
  • When war did break out in 1914, Germany and
    Austria-Hungary stayed allied and became known as
    the Central Powers.
  • In 1904, France and Britain signed an entente, a
    nonbinding agreement to follow common policies.
  • When war broke out, Britain signed a similar
    agreement with Russia. The three became known as
    the Allies.
  • These alliances became known as entangling
    alliances, due to the complex web that they
    created as countries began to go to war.

British post card
Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance
(No Transcript)
Competition problems
  • Overseas rivalries also divided up European
    nations. This European imperialism nearly
    brought Germany and France to the brink of war
    over the African nation Morocco.
  • This tension made BR and FR strengthen their ties
    against Germany.
  • With war tensions on the rise, the great powers
    began to build up their armies and navies.
  • The fiercest competition was the naval rivalry
    between BR and Germany.
  • With overseas colonies, both countries increased
    naval spending.
  • The rise of militarism, or the glorification of
    the military, helped to feed into the arms race.
  • Militarism painted false hope for young men, who
    saw war as a noble and great cause- not the
    misery that would soon follow.

  • Aggressive nationalism, or having extreme pride
    in ones country, also caused tension.
    Nationalism was strong in both Germany and
    France, but France was still bitter about their
    1871 defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.
  • Especially Frances loss of the border provinces
    of Alsace and Lorraine.
  • In Eastern Europe, Russia sponsored form of
    nationalism called Pan-Slavism.
  • As the largest Slavic country, Russia felt it was
    their duty to lead and defend all Slavs since
    they shared a common nationality.
  • By 1914, it stood ready to support Serbia, a
    proud young nation that dreamed of creating a
    South Slav state.

The Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
The Powder Keg Ignites
  • The crisis began when Archduke Francis Ferdinand
    of Austria-Hungary announced he would visit
    Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.
  • Bosnia, home of many Serbs and Slavs, was also
    under the Austrian Empire. The visit upset many
    Serbian Nationalists.
  • Serbian terrorists, the Black Hand, vowed to take
  • June 28, 1914- While riding through Sarajevo in
    an open car, Francis Ferdinand and his wife
    Sophia were shot by terrorists Gavrilo Princip
    and killed.
  • The news shocked Austria and Germany. Germany
    gave Austria a blank check, or a promise of
    unconstitutional support no matter what the cost.

And how the dominoes fall
  • Austria sent Serbia a sweeping ultimatum, or
    final set of demands.
  • Serbia did not agree to all of Austrias demand,
    leading to Austria declaring war on Serbia on
    July 28, 1914.
  • The war between the two nations was said to have
    been a summer war, however, the planned
    alliances were soon drawn into battle.
  • After Austrias declaration of war, Serbia turned
    to Big Brother Russia. Tsar Nicolas II
    telegraphed Kaiser Wilhelm II and asked to stop
    demands. When this plea failed, Russia began to
    mobilize, or prepare its military forces for war.
  • August 1, Germany responded by declaring war on
  • Russia turned to its ally France. French
    nationalists saw the opportunity to revenge the
    Franco-Prussian War.
  • When Germany told France to stay out, France
    refused, Germany declared war.

and keep falling
  • By early August, the lines were being drawn, yet
    Great Britain remained uncommitted.
  • Italy stayed neutral for the time being.
    Neutrality is a policy of supporting neither side
    of the war.
  • With Britain undecided, Germany made the decision
    for them. On August 3, Germany invaded neutral
    Belgium which had signed a treaty Britain.
    Britain was furious, declared war on Germany on
    August 4.