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ECOSYSTEM BALANCE

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Title: ECOSYSTEM BALANCE Author: mcarlin Last modified by: kferrara Created Date: 8/12/2011 12:31:26 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ECOSYSTEM BALANCE


1
ECOSYSTEM BALANCE
  • Chapter 6 (pgs. 88-107)
  • Mrs. Paul

2
6.1 RELATIONSHIPS IN THE ECOSYSTEM
  • All species interact and a change in the
    relationships may change a population and thus
    the food web.
  • Relationships
  • Predator/Prey
  • Parasitism
  • Symbiosis

3
Predators and Prey
4
  • Predators consumers that actively hunt other
    organisms.
  • Example praying mantis (predator) eating a
    dragon fly (prey)
  • Prey organisms that a predator feeds upon
  • Example a snake (predator) eating a praying
    mantis (prey).
  • The size of both populations influence each other

5
Example snowshoe hare and lynx
6
  • Increases in the hare population increase the
    lynx population.
  • More prey (food) can support more predators.
  • A decrease in the hare population leads to a
    decrease in the lynx population.

7
Parasitism
8
  • Parasitism relationship in which one organism
    feeds on the tissues or body fluids on another.
  • Host the organism on which the parasite feeds.
  • Parasites are harmful and have the potential to
    kill their host.
  • Depends on the host for many functions.
  • Examples fleas, ticks, lice, protists, tapeworms.

9
Symbiosis
10
  • Symbiosis relationship where two species live
    closely together.
  • Parasitism-one harmed/one benefits
  • Mutualism-both benefit
  • Commensalism-one benefit/one not affected

11
  • Commensalism relationship where one species
    benefits and the other is neither helped nor
    harmed.
  • Examples barnicles living on the skin of whale.

12
  • Mutualism relationship where both species
    benefits.
  • Examples ants and acacia trees, flowers and
    insects that pollinate them, yucca plant and the
    yucca moth.

13
Check for Understanding
  1. What processes link the sizes of predator and
    prey populations?
  2. Why are herbivores not considered to be
    parasites?
  3. How are the 3 types of symbiosis different? How
    are they similar?

14
6.2 ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
15
  • Ecological Succession gradual process of change
    and replacement of some or all of the species in
    a community.
  • May take hundreds or thousands of years.
  • Each new community makes it harder for the
    previous community to survive.
  • Two main types
  • 1. Primary Succession
  • 2. Secondary Succession

16
Primary Succession
17
  • Primary Succession sequence of communities
    forming in an originally lifeless habitat.
  • Occurs in habitats without life.
  • Examples cooled lava field, bare rock after
    retreating glacier.

18
Steps
  • Formation of soil from exposed rocks as lichen
    and weather break them down.
  • -Lichen fungus and alga living in a mutualistic
    relationship.
  • -Pioneer community first community to colonize
    new habitat.

2. Grasses and small plants begin to grow from
seeds carried by wind and animals.
3. Growth of non-woody plants with deep roots
(shrub community).
4. Growth of pine forest
5. Growth of hardwood forest. -Climax
community community that does not undergo
further succession.
19
Secondary Succession
20
  • Secondary succession succession that occurs
    where a community has been cleared by a
    disturbance that does not destroy the soil.
  • Examples fires, storms, human disturbances.
  • Frequently disturbed habitats may never reach the
    climax community.
  • Example grassland frequently burned by fires.

21
Steps
  • 1. Fast-growing grasses and non-woody plants.
  • 2. Larger shrubs grow.
  • 3. Pine Forest
  • 4. Hardwood Forest

22
Aquatic Succession
  • Starts with a body of water that is low in
    nutrients.
  • Leads to a fertile meadow as the lake fills in
    with vegetation over time.

23
Island Succession
  • Populations of new organisms can adapt quickly to
    fill new niches or to form new species.

24
Check for Understanding
  1. How does primary succession differ from secondary
    succession?
  2. What is a climax community?
  3. Suppose humans put out all the fires in a large
    area of grassland over a period of 100 years.
    What would happen to the grassland community?

25
6.3 BALANCE IN THE ECOSYSTEM
  • If ecosystems are not balanced, they do not
    survive.
  • Disruptions are normal they trigger change in
    the ecosystem.
  • Chaos Theory
  • Suggests that ecosystems may be sensitive to very
    small changes.

26
6.4 LAND BIOMES
27
  • We divide the ecosystems on Earth into several
    categories.
  • Biome major type of ecosystem with distinctive
    temperature, rainfall, and organisms.
  • Terrestrial (land) biomes
  • Type of biome depends on average temperature and
    amount of precipitation the area receives.
  • Aquatic (water) biomes
  • Determined by water depths, nutrients, and
    nearness to land.

28
  • 8 Major Terrestrial Biomes
  • 1. Desert
  • 2. Tundra
  • 3. Coniferous Forest
  • 4. Deciduous Forest
  • 5. Rain Forest
  • 6. Steppe
  • 7. Prairie
  • 8. Savanna
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