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Integrating Basic Government into Graduate Programs for Non-Traditional Learners

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Integrating Basic Government into Graduate Programs for Non-Traditional Learners Emergency Management Higher Education Conference Emmitsburg, MD, June 6-9, 2011 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Integrating Basic Government into Graduate Programs for Non-Traditional Learners


1
Integrating Basic Government into Graduate
Programs for Non-Traditional Learners
  • Emergency Management Higher
  • Education Conference
  • Emmitsburg, MD, June 6-9, 2011
  • Thomas E. Poulin, Ph.D.
  • Capella University

2
Graduate Focus
  • Undergraduates
  • Program focus is on working within discipline
  • Presumption learners must be provided all
    information relevant to the program
  • Graduate programs
  • Focus is on executive leadership, research or
    consulting
  • Learners are often non-traditional

3
Emergency Management Non-traditional Learners
  • Graduate EM programs attract many non-traditional
    learners
  • Non-traditional students
  • Technically oriented specialists
  • Entered government service in a specialty, but
    entering, or has entered, management position
  • Seeks degree to prepare for promotion, or to
    refine skills for current position
  • Career Transition
  • First responders
  • Military

4
Converging Degree Path in EM
  • Linear Degree Path
  • Converging Degree Path

MS (Accounting)
Graduate EM Programs
Criminal Justice
Social Work
BS (Accounting)
Engineering
Education
Health
Other
5
Challenges for Faculty
  • Emergency Management, regardless of sector, works
    within US disaster policies
  • Policies are founded on principles of public
    administration, including, in the US, federalism
    and free enterprise systems
  • A substantive lack of knowledge concerning
    government and governance can hinder
    understanding and practice of EM

6
Challenge Compounded by a Lack of Civil Literacy
  • In recent surveys of US citizens
  • 71 had mean score of 49 (F)
  • Elected officials scored 6 points lower
  • Only 49 could identify three branches of
    government
  • 54 did not know Congress could declare war (40
    thought it presidential power)

7
Lack of Civil Literacy (Continued)
  • In recent surveys of US citizens (Continued)
  • Only 16.25 could describe a free enterprise
    system
  • 20 believed Electoral College was a government
    training institution for potential presidential
    candidates

8
Lack of Civil Literacy (Continued)
  • In recent surveys of US citizens
  • By a 2 to 1 margin, more people knew Paula Abdul
    was a judge on American Idol than knew Abraham
    Lincoln wrote of government of the people.

9
Potential Influence of Leadership
  • Within their professions, many have undergone
    leadership training
  • Potential flaws in leadership training programs
  • Trait-based, not competency-based
  • Single leader (heroic model) vs. Collaborative
    leadership
  • Lack of environmental contexts

10
Challenges in Course Room
  • Learners unaware of
  • Public versus private goods
  • Separation of powers
  • Concurrent powers
  • Legal mandates
  • Wilsonian dichotomy or Madisonian inclusivity,
    favoring Hamiltonian or Jeffersonian models

11
Challenges to Faculty
  • Develop means of introducing basic government
    theory and practices into courses
  • Develop appreciation of intergovernmental
    management, as opposed to intergovernmental
    relations

12
Specific EM-related Constitutional Elements
  • US Constitution
  • Preamble General Welfare
  • Article 1, Section 8 Delegated Powers, Elastic
    Clause
  • 9th Amendment State Authorities
  • 10th Amendment Reserved Powers
  • 5th Amendment Due Process
  • 14th Amendment Due Process
  • State Constitutions

13
Examples of US Disaster Laws and Policies
  • Disaster Acts or Policies
  • Stafford Act
  • National Response Framework
  • National Incident Management System
  • Miscellaneous Acts
  • Environmental, Historical, Cultural Preservation
    Acts
  • Employment and related acts

14
Structural Remedies
  • Some academic degree programs address this
    through course structure
  • Formal cohort
  • Formalized introductory courses
  • Academic pre-requisites
  • Structural remedies may limit programmatic
    flexibility

15
Adaptive Remedies
  • Instructors must develop easily achievable basic
    introduction, then use it as context for course
    work
  • Adapt to the level of understanding in class
  • Focus on parameters and authorities associated
    with laws and policies, not complex legal
    theories or interpretations, which might require
    a lawyer to teach
  • Focus is on creating an understanding of
    real-world EM

16
Integration Processes
  • During first session(s)
  • Brief overview of why EM should understand laws
    and policies
  • Brief discussion of legal environment, related to
    EM
  • Injects during remaining sessions
  • Often simple, but critical changes to
  • Class discussions
  • Examinations
  • Projects

17
Inject Example 1
  • If asking about federal government response to
    Hurricane Katrina
  • Instead of
  • How could the federal government have accelerated
    the response to Katrina?
  • Change to
  • How could officials have streamlined application
    of the Stafford Act and the National Response
    Plan to accelerate the response to Katrina?

18
Inject Example 2
  • Instead of asking
  • When should evacuations be ordered?
  • Ask
  • What are decision-making factors in ordering an
    evacuation, and who has the legal authority to
    order and enforce them?

19
Inject Example 3
  • Instead of asking
  • Should a quarantine be imposed?
  • Ask
  • Who has the authority to order a quarantine, and
    what is the process for doing so in your state?

20
Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Strengths
  • Provides learners specific contexts for EM
    engagement in their communities
  • Provides learners with perspective of external
    influences on their discipline
  • Weaknesses
  • Consumes time
  • May generate unrelated debate, which must be
    controlled
  • Does not address issues of EM within private
    organizational structures, though some
    information translates easily

21
Conclusions
  • The Problem Learners who lack an understanding
    of disaster-related laws and policies may
    experience difficulties in the practice or
    research of EM.
  • Idealized Goal New emergency managers who have
    sufficient appreciation of the overarching
    political framework to be able to manage
    technical programs within the real world.

22
References
  • Anderson, T.D., Gisborne, K., Holliday, P.
    (2006). Every officer is a leader, 2nd edition.
    Victoria, BC, Canada Trafford Publishing.
  • Burns, J.M. (2003). Transforming leadership. New
    York, NY Grove Press.
  • Gormley, W.T., Jr., and Balla, S.J. (2008).
    Bureaucracy and democracy Accountability and
    performance. Washington, DC CQ Press.
  • Heifitz, R.A., Linsky, M. (2002). Leadership on
    the line. Cambridge, MA Harvard Business School
    Press.
  • Intercollegiate Studies Institute American Civil
    Literacy Program. (n.d.). Additional findings.
    Enlighted citizenship. Retrieved from
    http//www.americancivicliteracy.org/2011/summary_
    summary.html

23
References (Continued)
  • Intercollegiate Studies Institute American Civil
    Literacy Program. (n.d.). Summary. Enlighted
    citizenship. Retrieved from http//www.americanciv
    icliteracy.Org/2011/summary_summary.html
  • Intercollegiate Studies Institute American Civil
    Literacy Program. (n.d.). Additional findings.
    Our facing heritage. Retrieved from Http//www.
    americancivicliteracy.org/2008/additional_finding.
    html
  • Kettle, D.F. (2002.) The transformation of
    governance. Baltimore, MD Johns Hopkins Press.
  • McEntire, D.A., Dawson, G. (2007). The
    intergovernmental context. In W.L. Waugh, Jr. and
    K. Tierney (Eds). Emergency management
    Principles and practice for local government, 2nd
    edition (pages 57-70). Washington, DC ICMA
    Press.
  • .

24
References (Continued)
  • Nicholson, W.C. (2003). Emergency response and
    emergency management law Cases and materials.
    Springfield, IL Charles C. Thomas Publishers.
  • Riley, D.D., Brophy-Baermann, B.E. (2006).
    Bureaucracy and the policy process. Lanham, MD
    Rowman and Littlefield Rosenbloom, D., Naff, K.
    (2010). The status of law in contemporary public
    administration, literature, education and
    practice. In R. OLeary, D. Van Slyke, S. Kim
    (Eds.). The future of public administration The
    Minnowbrook perspective (pages 211-232).
    Washington, DC Georgetown University Press.
  • Rubin, C.B. Local emergency management Origins
    and evolution. In W.L. Waugh, Jr. and K. Tierney
    (Eds). Emergency Management Principles and
    Practices for Local Government, 2nd edition
    (pages 57-70). Washington, DC ICMA Press.

25
References (Continued)
  • Stillman, R.J. II. (1999). Preface to public
    administration A search for themes and
    direction, 2nd edition. Burke, VA Chatelaine
    Press.
  • Sylves, R. (2008). Disaster policy and politics
    Emergency management and homeland security.
    Washington, DC CQ Press.

26
Contact Information
  • Thomas E. Poulin, PhD
  • Capella University
  • Core Faculty Emergency Management
  • Thomas.Poulin_at_Capella.edu
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