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Political and Economic Policies of Joseph Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev

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Political and Economic Policies of Joseph Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev Define: Totalitarianism: describes a government that takes total, centralized control over ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political and Economic Policies of Joseph Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev


1
Political and Economic Policies of Joseph Stalin
and Mikhail Gorbachev
  • Define
  • Totalitarianism describes a government that
    takes total, centralized control over every
    aspect of public and private life.
  • 2. Communism an economic system in which all
    the means of production are owned by the people,
    private property does not exists and all goods
    and services are shared equally.
  • Picture/Symbol of communism

2
Cold War Causes
  • List the causes and create symbolic image
  • Two superpowers face off (US and USSR)
  • Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference showed
    differing goals for the US and USSR. The USSR or
    Soviet Union takes over Eastern Europe. The Iron
    Curtain divides Western and Eastern Europe.
  • Containment policy of the US to block Soviet
    influence and spread of communism
  • Marshall Plan The assistance program for Western
    Europe. The US Congress spent over 12 billion to
    provide food, machines and other materials for
    construction in Western Europe.
  • Rival Alliances NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
    Organization) led by the US and the Warsaw Pact
    (led by the USSR)
  • Brinksmanship and Nuclear Threat ICBM missiles

3
Stalin
  • Characteristics
  • Communist
  • General Secretary of the Union of the Soviet
    Socialist Republic (USSR)
  • Dangerous, ruthless,
  • Totalitarian dictator
  • Launched the Great Purges and collectivization of
    agriculture where millions of Russians will die
  • Used indoctrination and Propaganda to control the
    people.

4
Stalin
  • Economic Policies
  • - Five year plan of industrialization
  • -- Collectivization of agricultural
  • -- Rapid Industrialization
  • Political Policies
  • -- Great Purges (killing millions)
  • -- Police Terror
  • -- Indoctrination Propaganda
  • -- Censorship

5
Gorbachev
  • Political policies
  • -Democratization
  • -Diplomacy over Force
  • -Glasnost (openness)
  • -Relaxed Censorship
  • Economic Policies
  • -Perestroika (economic restructuring)
  • -Free Enterprise
  • -Emphasis of consumer goods

6
Similarities Stalin Gorbachev
  • List and create symbolic images
  • Totalitarianism
  • Police Terror
  • Creation of Economic Policies
  • Heavy Industry

7
Cold War Around the World
  • 1. War in Korea
  • Causes (1950-1953)
  • Korean crossed the 38th parallel and attacked the
    South
  • The United Nations intervened and pushed the
    North Koreans back
  • The Chinese intervened when the UN troops went
    too far north.
  • 1953 a cease fire was signed
  • Effects/Aftermath
  • Korea remained a divided nation
  • Kim Jong Il became the dictator of North Korea
    and are opposed to unification
  • The South has a democratically elected government
  • The United States still has troops in the South

8
War in Vietnam
  • War Breaks Out
  • Vietnamese nationalists and communists joined to
    defeat the French armies
  • French controlled the cities but the communists
    has the support of the peasants in the
    countryside
  • The United States supported the French because we
    were afraid of the Communist threat around the
    world and the domino theory
  • French suffered a major defeat at Dien Bien Phu
    and surrendered to Ho
  • An international peace conference is held in
    Geneva Switzerland and Vietnam was divided on the
    17th parallel
  • Hos government controlled the north and the US
    set up an anti-communist government in the South
    led by Ngo Dihn Diem
  • Gulf of Tonkin The US gets involved under
    President Lyndon Johnson
  • By 1965, gt 185,000 troops were sent and the US
    turned to air power and bombed the North
  • Road to War/Causes
  • In the early 1900s, France controlled most of the
    resource-rich Southeast Asia
  • Nationalist independence movements began to
    develop and nationalist Ho Chi Minh turned to the
    Communists for help
  • After WW2, the French did not grant Vietnam
    independence as the nationalists hoped.

9
  • Turmoil in Cambodia
  • Khmer Rouge set up a brutal communist government
    that wanted to create a rural society.
  • Pol Pot, the leader and his followers slaughtered
    2 million people.
  • Vietnam invaded and stopped the Khmer Rouge.
  • The United Nations took over in 1993 and helped
    Cambodia adopt a democratic constitution.
  • Post Vietnam Communist oppression caused 1.5
    million people to flee Vietnam and Cambodia/
    About 70,000 Vietnamese refugees eventually
    settled in the United States and Canada.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Fidel Castro was the communist dictator of Cuba
    In 1960 the CIA planned an invasion of Cuba and
    trained anti-Castro exiles. In April 1961 the
    exiles landed in the Bay of Pigs in Cuba. The
    invasion was unsuccessful and the US was
    humiliated.
  • The failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced the
    Nikita Khruschev to build a 42 missile site in
    Cuba.
  • An American spy plane discovered the site and
    President Kennedy demanded the missiles be
    removed. US troops assembled in Florida ready to
    invade Cuba.
  • Fortunately, Krushchev removed the missiles and
    World War III and a nuclear disaster was averted.
  • The US maintains a trade embargo against Cuba.

10
  • Clash in Iran
  • The Shah of Iran is placed as leader by Western
    powers after WW2
  • The conservative religious leaders including the
    Ayatollah Khomeini opposed the Shah and the US
    for supporting him.
  • In 1979, Islamic revolutionaries took over the
    American embassy in Teheran and held American
    hostage of 444 days.
  • Iran and Iraq go war over religious differences.
    Iraq had a secular (non-religious) government and
    Sunni Muslim majority. The Iranians a Shia
    Muslim.
  • The US secretly sold Iran weapons in exchange for
    the hostages.
  • Face off in Afghanistan
  • Superpowers (US and the Soviet Union) fight in
    Afghanistan.
  • Soviets support the Afghan communists and the US
    supplied the Mujahideen (rebels) with weapons.
  • The war has a devastating cost to the Soviet
    Union and after 10 years they withdraw.
  • The Soviet Union suffers from internal political
    and economic problems.

11
  • Destalination and protests in Eastern Europe
    (Hungary and Czechoslovakia)
  • Nikita Khruschev became leader of the Soviet
    Union after Stalins death in 1953. He begins the
    policy of destalination or purging the country of
    Stalins memory and declares peaceful
    competition with capitalistic states.
  • In 1956, Hungary led by Imre Nagy demands free
    elections and the Soviet troop leave Hungary.
    Soviet tanks invade and Nagy is executed in 1958.
  • 1968 Prague Spring Alexander Dubcek wanted
    Communism with a human face or human rights for
    Czecholovakia. The Soviet Union invade and
    expelled Dubcek.
  • From Brinksmanship to Détente
  • Brinksmanship policy of the United States that
    brought the Soviet Union and the US (Cold War) on
    the brink of WW3.
  • Détente a policy of lessening the Cold War
    tensions during the Nixon presidency. Nixon
    visited China and started the SALT discussions
    (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks)

12
Ronald Reagan abandons Détente
  • In 1983, Reagan starts the Strategic Defense
    Initiative (SDI) or Star Wars program. He wanted
    to protect America against its enemy missiles.
    The program was never put into effect.
  • Tensions increase between the Soviet Union and
    the US. But they could not compete with the US
    economically.
  • By 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist.
  • I
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