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Topic: Neolithic (Agricultural) Revolution


Topic: Neolithic (Agricultural) Revolution Overview: The Agricultural Revolution was a change from hunting gathering to systematic agriculture. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic: Neolithic (Agricultural) Revolution

Topic Neolithic (Agricultural) Revolution
Overview The Agricultural Revolution was a
change from hunting gathering to systematic
agriculture. Farming led to the
establishment of permanent settlements that
eventually developed into the worlds first
civilizations. Civilizations share common
Vocabulary and Terms tools hunters/gatherers Syst
ematic agriculture settlement domestication
pastoral nomads irrigation civilization
Key Events and People Neolithic Revolution (
causes and results) Causes Change in weather,
increase control of Their environment,
Domestication of plants and animals. Results Incr
ease population, settlements and
civilizations Characteristics of a
Civilization Religion Economic
Systems Government Writing Cities Different
jobs Public Works Social Classes
Topic River Valley Civilizations
Overview Farming Communities often developed
along river banks. As the river banks flooded
and carried silt onto the land, the land became
more fertile. The River also allowed for
transportation and communications. River
valley civilizations developed in Mesopotamia
, Egypt, India and China
Key Events and People Identify the contributions
of various river valley civilizations
including Sumer- plow, wheel, number sys based
on 60, sun dial, pottery wheel, use of
Bronze Phoenicians-22 letter alphabet Babylonians
Hammurabi (Hammurabis code) first written
set of laws Israelites- 10 commandments Persians-
expansion of trade, silk road cultural
diffusion Egyptians- papyrus, mummies, pyramids,
Vocabulary and Terms Mesopotamia Ziggurat Cuneifor
m Nile Hieroglyphics Pharaohs Royal
Road City-state Dynasty Cultural
diffusion Empire
Topic Greece and Rome
Overview The political and cultural beginnings
of the classical societies of Greece and Rome
laid the foundations for future development. They
left a large imprint that other civilizations
would copy or revise. Their influence on law,
politics, art, architecture and science are still
seen today.
Key Events and People Greece Establishment of
early city states-independent due to geography,
Minoans, Mycenaean Greek Philosophers-Socrates,
Plato and Aristotle Persian wars Greeks v
Persians, Greek city states form alliance called
Delian League- Leads to golden age of Athens Age
of Pericles expansion of arts and culture,
Direct Democracy The Great Peloponnesian War
Sparta v Athens, weakened the major Greek estates
led to rise of Macedonian Hellenistic Era under
Alexander-the Great Expansion of Greek language
and ideas the non Greek world in SW Asia and
Vocabulary and Terms Empire Democracy Diffusion po
lis Oligarchy Philosophy Epic poem Triumvirate Pat
rician Plebeian
Topic Greece and Rome (continued)
Key Events and People Rome Greek influence-art,
architecture, religion The Republic leader is
not a monarch citizens have the right to
vote Roman Law- 12 Tables Society Paterfamilias
(male dominated society), patricians ( wealthy
land owners) and plebeians (less wealthy land
owners) Architecture- dome, arch, aqueducts road
systems Punic Wars- Rome v Carthage- Rome becomes
dominant power in The Mediterranean First
Triumvirate fall of the Republic- Caesar becomes
dictator Second Triumvirate- The Beginning of
the Roman Empire, Caesar Augustus declared
imperator Pax Romana (Roman Peace) period of
peace and prosperity lasting almost
100yrs Constantine- first Christian emperor,
founded Byzantium later known as
Influence on government Republic Democracy Branche
s of government Rights and responsibilities of
the citizens
Topic India and China
Overview Early civilizations in India and China
were among the first to deal with the problems of
governing large populations. Both countries
enjoyed rich cultural traditions and many of
their technological innovations were adapted by
other peoples. Hinduism and Buddhism are now
practices by people around the world.
Vocabulary and Terms
Key Events and People
India Aryans-Indo Europeans nomads who will
conquer the Indian peninsula and created a new
Indian society based on their culture and
traditions. They are responsible for the Caste
System Siddhartha Gautama- Buddha Asoka-Ruler of
the Maurayan Dynasty he ruled using Buddhist
ideals as a guide. Huns- invaders from northwest
who caused the decline of the last Indian
Kingdom China Shang-ancestor worship, division
of classes, writing system, use of bronze and
silk Zhou-Mandate of Heaven Qin- (Qin Shinhuangdi
first emperor) unify China, money system, roads,
great wall for protection Han-Civil Service, cast
iron, water mills Tang-gun power Song-movable
Monsoon Sanskirt Raja Caste system Reincarnation
Silk Road
Mandate of Heaven Dao Filial piety
Topic World Religions
Overview Integral to the growth of many
civilization is the development of belief systems
that address questions of ethics, morality,
spirituality, and the possibility of an
afterlife. Religions provide societies with a
since of unity, pride, and inspiration.
Missionary activity has often led to dynamic and
fruitful interactions across cultures. On the
other hand, clashes between different faiths have
resulted in bigotry, persecution, and war.
Judaism covenant with Yahweh (God) follow law
and he will deliver them to promise land ,
Prophets Abraham, Moses. Holy Book Torah, Ten
Commandments Christianity believe in one God and
that Jesus is the savior son of God, Prophets
Peter and Paul, Holy Book Bible, Ten
Commandments and Cannon law Islam Allah (God) is
all powerful. He created the universe and
revealed his word to Muhammad his prophet. Holy
Book Quran, 5 Pillars, Shariah (book of
law) Sikhism spiritual union with God leads to
salvation, combines Hindu and Muslim ideas Based
on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev,
5Ks Hinduism Soul should seek ultimate
reality, Believe in reincarnation based on karma
(peoples actions) in relation to Dharma (divine
law), Vedas- book of ceremonies and
traditions Buddhism Once people let go of their
worldly cares, pain and suffering will be
forgotten, goal is to achieve nirvana, Four Noble
Truths ( message) , Eightfold Path ( rules to
live by), Siddhartha Gautama - Buddha Confucianism
there is a assumption that the universe has an
order, if we focus on the five relationships ad
do what is right we will preserve the order.
Founder Confucius, Five Relationships, strong
work ethic
Monotheistic Polytheistic Philosophy
Topic Muslim World
Overview The cultural, artistic, and scientific
contributions of Muslims continue to enrich our
daily lives and more than one billion people
around the world are Muslims who follow the
teachings of the Quran and Islam is one of the
worlds leading faiths.
Vocabulary and Terms
Key Events and People
Muslims Those who worship Allah and recognize
Muhammad as the last Prophet Mecca The Holy
City of the Islamic faith Allah Monotheistic
deity also recognized as the God of Abraham
(Yahweh) Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca that each
Muslim is required (health permitting) to take
within their lifetime Jihad (Holy Struggle)
The expansion of the Islamic state and control
Muhammad Born in or about 570 and is considered
the founder of Islam Trade and spread of
religion Silk roads, European exploration,
slave trade Development of Islamic caliphates
Abbasid caliphate Baghdad Fatimid caliphate
Cairo Umayyad caliphate Damascus Shia
movement begins as a reaction to Umayyad rule
Expansion of Islam into North Africa and Spain
Golden age in mathematics and science, including
chemistry, empirical scientific method, and
medical care Mongol invasions
Topic Byzantine Empire and The Middle Ages
Overview The Byzantine Empire became the seat of
the Eastern Orthodox Church and developed its own
unique civilization. During, the early Middle
Ages (age of faith), Europe experienced a revival
of trade, and a confident Catholic Church.
However, it also saw tragic setbacks in the form
of plague, economic collapse, and war.
Christianity remained a focus of European life,
but centuries of disagreements with the
monarchies left the Church weakened.
Key Events and People
Feudalism Reciprocal military obligations
between members of the warrior nobility in
Medieval Europe Characteristics Lords grant
parcels of land known as fiefs to lesser knights
who are known as vassals, who in turn, provide
military service to the lord. Chivalry and fealty
between a lord and the vassal relationship
Contributing factors Fall of the Roman Empire
leaves a gap in protection and services to
people, invaders overrun communities, people turn
to lords for their protection Manorialism
Smallest economic, social unit revolving around
an estate, controlled by a lord, who gives land
and protection to his serfs, who in turn give him
their services. Manors were self-sufficient where
serfs raised and produced nearly everything
needed for that community. The open field system
allowed several families of serfs to farm strips
of the same parcel of land. Living conditions for
serfs were generally harsh on manors.
Contributing factors Model of villas in the
Roman Empire used to manage rural economies
decline in overland and sea trade after the fall
of the Roman empire as well as threats from
invaders also promoted the self-sufficiency of a
Topic Byzantine Empire and The Middle
Crusades Series of religious expeditions to
regain the Holy land Failure lessened the power
of the Pope Casualties weakened the feudal
nobility Trade in spices and other goods from
Southwest Asia lead to European desire for new
trade routes that begins the Era of
Exploration Black Death- Bubonic Plague spread
through out all of Western Europe and killed 38
million people Collapse of manorial system as
productivity ends and serfs leave in search of
work peasant rebellions grow in response to
nobles refusal to increase wages Church loses
prestige as it is unable to stop the plague
through prayer and intervention 100 Years War-
War between France and England. The kings of both
countries claimed right to the French
crown Emergence of nationalism and monarchs as
national leaders in England and
France Instability in England after the Hundred
Years War leads to the War of the Roses,
which strengthens Parliament since it is called
frequently by King Edward III to increase taxes
to finance this new war democracy advanced as
Parliament gains greater power of the
purse Great Schism Split in the Catholic Church
as two popes claim authority one in Avignon and
the other in Romeboth excommunicate each other
from the Church Authority of the pope as head of
the Church challenged by John Wycliffe, who
believes that God is sole authority, and Jan
Huss, who believes the authority of the Bible is
higher than the popes authority. Beginning of
challenges to the authority of the Catholic
Church that leads to the Reformation.
Topic Renaissance and Reformation
Overview The Italian Renaissance introduced
Europe to a secular worldview and a boom in
artistic and intellectual development.
Intellectual change led to Christian humanism .
The Reformation was a break with the Catholic
Church and the birth of Lutheranism.
Renaissance Humanism focuses on human potential
and achievements through the study of classical
texts Popular subjects from classical
civilizations like history, literature, and
philosophy revived and known as the
humanities Secularism less emphasis on religion
with a more worldly view concerned with the here
and now Invention of the printing press spreads
new ideas New techniques in perspective make art
and sculpture more three-dimensional than
Medieval Art Renaissance masters- Leonardo,
Michelangelo and Raphael Reformation Europe
becomes politically fragmented along religious
lines and nations align themselves as
either Catholic or Protestant Unity in Europe as
a Christian society was shattered by the
different conflicts that erupted
between Protestants and Catholics Catholic
Counter Reformation is a response to the
Protestant Reformation Vernacular translations of
scriptures allowed ordinary people to read the
Bible and explore the truths of God for
themselves. Protestantism gave people a new sense
of coming to God without the intervention of the
Church and priests Persecution of perceived
heretics in both the Catholic and Protestant
churches Use of the Inquisition courts in
Catholic Spain
Topic The Enlightenment and The Scientific
Overview The Scientific Revolution challenged
how people view the universe using
experimentation, observation and scientific
reasoning to gather knowledge about the physical
world. The Scientific Revolution also gave rise
to an intellectual movement the Enlightenment
(Age of Reason). The Enlightenment thought
provided the philosophical foundations for the
American Revolution. Britain lost its colonies in
North America to the newly formed United States,
while Spain and Portugal held onto their
profitable Latin American colonies.
Key Events and People Copernicus proposed the
theory that the Sun, not the Earth, was the
center of the solar system in 1507, and that the
earth was really insignificant in the context of
the universe. Galileo developed and applied
scientific principles that significantly
increased astronomical understanding. In 1613, he
proved Copernicus theory that the Sun was the
center of the solar system. Sir Isaac Newton -
An English mathematician and physicist who
devised principles to explain universal
gravitation, that all matter attracts other
matter. He adapted the ideas of Galileo Galilei
into three laws of motion including for every
action there is an equal and opposite
reaction. Robert Boyle - English physicist and
chemist who discovered the nature of elements
and compounds, the basis of modern chemistry John
Locke Governments have a contract with the
people, by a more positive attitude about the
peoples ability to choose a government. Hence,
within Locke is the belief that governments must
protect their citizens life, liberty and
property and should they fail to do so they can
and should be replaced. Thomas Hobbes Men
should put their faith (or create a contract) in
a government to provide stability for their
lives, since people have lives that are cruel,
nasty, brutish and short. Voltaire Advocacy of
civil liberties including tolerance, freedom of
religion, and freedom of speech Charles de
Montesquieu Power should be balanced between
three branches of officials (separation of
powers) Jean Jacques Rousseau The general will,
usually defined as the majority, should determine
the laws of the nation
Topic Exploration the Americas
Overview In the fifteenth century, Europeans set
out on a series of overseas voyages that would
lead to the establishment of European trading
posts and colonies in both the Americas and the
East. Religious zeal, a quest for personal and
national glory, and a desire for new wealth were
the chief motives behind the European voyages.
New technologies and the growing power of the
European monarchies made the voyages possible.
The Spanish colonization of the Americas was
extremely rapid and devastated native American
civilizations. Colonization of the globe led
Portugal, Spain, the Dutch Republic, England, and
France to new economic heights. International
trade increased, and a new economic
theorymercantilismwas born.
Key Events and People Causes of European
expansion God, Gold and Glory Effects of
European expansion colonization and
Imperialism Hernando Cortes-conquest of Mexico
Aztecs Francisco Pizarro conquest of the Incas
in Peru
Vocabulary and Terms Mercantilism prosperity of a
nation depends on its Supply of gold and
silver Encomienda system land granted by
king Mestizos european and indian
decent Columbian Exchange-exchange of goods
between the Americas and Europe Middle Passage
middle point of triangular trade, journey of
Africans to America
Topic Exploration the Americas
Maya Astronomy Observe the movement of the sun,
moon, and stars and relate these to the
activities of their gods Mathematics 260 day
religious calendar, concept of zero Architectural
engineering Elaborate pyramids, temples, and
ball courts Aztec Astronomy and Mathematics
Ceremonial calendar Architectural engineering
Tenochtitlan designed as a planned city
constructed on an island with raised causeways to
the mainland aqueducts to bring fresh water to
the city elaborate temples, palaces, and
pyramids Incas Astronomy Two separate calendars
for the day and night Mathematics Accounting
device known as a quipu (knotted strings)
decimal system incorporated in system of
governing Architectural engineering Elaborate
temples and palaces Machu Picchu, extensive road
system, uniform system of architecture for
government buildings in the empire
Topic Political Revolutions
  • American Revolution (1775-1783)
  • Causes
  • Ideas from the Glorious Revolution limited
    monarchy, English Bill of Rights
  • Ideas from the Enlightenment all people have
    rights and governments are responsible for
    protecting these rights people have the right to
    remove governments that fail to do so
  • Desire to participate in parliament
  • British polices related to the American colonies,
    especially concerning the imposition of taxes
  • The Americans declared independence in the
    Declaration of Independence expressing ideas
    about liberty, equality, and democracy.
  • Consequences
  • America became independent
  • U.S. Constitution
  • The Bill of Rights
  • The success and ideas of the American Revolution
    inspired the French Revolution

French Revolution (1789-1795) Causes Influences
from the Enlightenment and the American
Revolution Inequality in the class system (1st,
2nd, 3rd estates) Abuses of the nobility and the
kings Debt and high taxes Crop failures cause the
price of bread to rise beyond the ability of the
peasants to pay (starvation) Consequences The
Declaration of the Rights of Man was
published A Parliament was established and
peasants were freed King Louis XVI and Marie
Antoinette were beheaded along with others during
the Reign of Terror Chaos in government resulted
in Napoleon and the army coming to power and
creating the French Empire
Topic The Industrial Revolution
Overview The Industrial Revolution began in the
late eighteenth century and turned Great Britain
into the first and the richest industrialized
nation. A series of technological advances caused
Great Britain to become a leader in the
production of cotton, coal, and iron. After the
introduction of the first steam-powered
locomotives, railroad tracks were laid across
Great Britain, reducing the cost of shipping
goods. The Industrial Revolution spread to the
rest of Europe and North America. In the United
States, the railroad made it possible to sell
manufactured goods from the Northeast across the
country. The Industrial Revolution had a
tremendous social impact in Europe. Cities grew
quickly, and an industrial middle class emerged.
The industrial working class, meanwhile, dealt
with wretched working conditions. These
conditions gave rise to socialism, a movement
aimed at improving working conditions through
government control of the means of production.
Agricultural Revolution enclosure system that
allowed for cultivation of larger fields, Jethro
Tulls seed drill, crop rotation, new methods of
breeding livestock all lead to a population
increase, less labor intensive, and land
displacement of smaller farmers who move to
cities and begin working in factories New
inventions in the textile industry flying
shuttle, spinning jenny, spinning mule, water
frame modernize the cotton and textile
industry Factory system that is used for the
housing of large machinery Steam engine as a
source of power James Watt Steamboat makes
water transportation easier Robert Fulton
(American) Railroads Creation of the factory
system that led to mass production of goods Long
work hours, low wages, and dangerous working
conditions for industrial workers Class tensions
between the upper/middle classes and the working
classes Increase in child labor which later led
to child labor reform laws Poor housing
conditions for workers that result in poor
sanitary conditions and health epidemics
Topic Imperialism
Overview The search for sources of raw materials
and markets for industrial products spurred the
European powers and the United States to colonize
large areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Resentment of abuses and rising nationalism led
native populations to demand independence.
  • Key Events and People
  • Negative consequences
  • Native people lose control of their lands and
  • New diseases like smallpox reduce native
  • Resistance movements, famines resulting from
    shifts to cash crop production, and harsh working
  • conditions also reduce native populations
  • Problems of identity as westerners contemptuously
    view native cultures
  • Areas stripped of natural resources
  • Positive consequences
  • European military presence reduces local warfare
  • Humanitarian efforts improve sanitation and
    education that leads to growth in life expectancy
    and literacy
  • Colonial lands equipped with infrastructure to
    aid in economic growth
  • Products from colonies valued in the
    international markets

Vocabulary and Terms Colony governed internally
by a foreign power Protectorate country with
its own internal government but controlled by an
outside power Sphere of Influence area claimed
by an outside power for exclusive investment and
trading Economic Imperialism independent
countries controlled by private
interests Indirect control colonies with local
government officials with limited self-rule laws
based both on European styles and local
rules Direct control colonial governments with
exclusive use of foreign officials with no
self-rule laws based only on European law
policies of assimilation to absorb local cultures
into European culture
Topic World War I
Competition over trade and colonies led to the
formation of two rival European alliancesthe
Triple Entente of Great Britain, France, and
Russia and the Triple Alliance, consisting of
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Austria-Hungary, as well as numerous other
European governments, confronted challenges from
minorities who wished to establish their own
national states. Strikes and violent actions by
Socialist labor movements also threatened
European governments. Many European states
responded with increasing militarism and
nationalism. The assassination of the heir to the
throne of Austria-Hungary by a Bosnian Serb
militant set off a chain of diplomatic and
military decisions that led all of the great
powers of Europe into World War I.
Key Events and People Causes Imperialism
European nations compete for colonies Nationalism
Competition for industrial dominance develops
between Great Britain and Germany territorial
disputes over Alsace-Lorraine promote rivalry
between France and Germany Austria-Hungary and
Russia compete for dominance of the Balkan
Peninsula, where independence movements of
various Slavic people develop. Militarism
Increasing nationalism led to a European arms
race Alliance System Alliances between the
great powers of Europe were complicated and
shifted constantly Impact Trench war fare and new
weapons lead to millions of deaths Treaty of
Versailles sole responsibly for war placed on
Vocabulary and Terms Alliance Militarism Nationali
sm Trench warfare Mobilization Fourteen Points-
President Woodrow Wilsons plan for peace,
includes the League of Nations League of
Nations-peace keeping organization
Topic World War II
Overview Aggressive moves by Germany and Japan
set the stage for World War II. In 1935, Adolf
Hitler began a massive military buildup in
violation of the Treaty of Versailles. When
Hitler signed the Nonaggression Pact with Stalin
and invaded Poland, Britain and France declared
war on Germany. German forces swept through
central and northern Europe early in the war.
Meanwhile, the United States followed a policy of
isolationism. In the east, harsh weather and a
resolute Soviet Union defeated an invading German
army. The Japanese conquered the Pacific but
miscalculated when they attacked the U.S. naval
base at Pearl Harbor. The United States surprised
Japan by abandoning its neutrality and entering
the war to retake the Pacific. By the end of
1943, the tide had turned against Germany, Italy,
and Japan. After the invasion of Normandy, the
Allies liberated Paris and defeated Germany. The
war in Asia continued until the United States
dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, causing massive
casualties and bringing Japan's surrender.
Key Events and People Japanese imperialism Plans
for a Pacific empire that included China that
would allow Japan to solve its economic problems
through the provision of raw materials and
markets for its goods as well as providing more
room for its growing population. Attack on Pearl
Harbor (December 7, 1941) by Japan leads the
United States to declare war on Japan. This
results in a declaration of war on the United
States by Germany and Italy. Normandy landings
(June 6, 1944 D-Day) by Allied forces on the
coast of France lead to a German retreat. As a
result, France and the Low Countries are
liberated and Allied troops push eastward into
Germany that leads to German surrender in 1945.
Dropping of atomic bombs (August 6 and 9, 1945)
by U.S. on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki leads to Japans surrender.
Vocabulary and Terms Fascism Totalitarianism Axis
Germany, Italy Japan Allies U.S. Britain, Soviet
Union Blitzkrieg (lightning war) incorporates
fast-moving airplanes and tanks. The Holocaust
Genocide of over 6 million Jews and other groups
throughout Europe considered by Germany to be
inferior. Known as The Final Solution and
resulted in the extermination of these people in
death camps. Containment After WW2 policy to
contain or stop the spread of communism in the
Topic Cold War Era
Overview  Tensions between western nations and
Communist governments following WWII. In 1947,
America implemented a policy of containment that
provided economic support to vulnerable countries
as way to prevent them from falling under
communist rule.
  • Soviet satellites in Eastern Europe lead to the
    Iron Curtain (1945-1948)
  • Truman Doctrine (1947) U.S. aid to Turkey and
    Greece to prevent spread of communism
  • Marshall Plan (1948) U.S. aid to Western Europe
    for war recovery and prevention of spread of
  • Berlin Airlift (1948) aid by air to
    Soviet-blockaded Berlin
  • Communist takeover of mainland China by Mao
    Zedong (1949)
  • Creation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    (NATO) (1949) between Western European countries
    and the United States as a defensive military
  • Korean War (1950-1953) that leaves a divided
    Korean peninsula North Korea (communist) and
    South Korea (democracy)
  • Creation of Warsaw Pact (1955) between U.S.S.R.
    and Eastern European satellites as a military
  • Arms Race- Development and testing of hydrogen
    bomb by U.S. (1952) followed by Soviet H-Bomb
  • Vietnam War (1953-1975) that results in
    communist-backed North Vietnam overtaking
    U.S.-backed South Vietnam
  • Launching of Sputnik satellite by Soviet Union
  • Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro that leads
    to communist takeover of that country (1959-1960)
  • Berlin Wall is built to divide the city into
    communist East Berlin and free West Berlin (1961)
  • Cuban Missile Crisis between U.S. and U.S.S.R.
    that almost leads to nuclear war (1962)
  • Civil war in Nicaragua that leads to
    communist-backed Sandinistas taking over the
    government (1979)
  • Civil war in El Salvador that leads U.S. to back
    anti-communist forces known as the Contras
  • Election of Mikhail Gorbachev in U.S.S.R. leads
    to political and economic reforms Glasnost,
    Perestroika (1985)
  • Fall of Berlin Wall (1989) and end of communist
    governments in Eastern Europe (1989-1990)
  • Reunification of Germany (1990)