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Rocks and the Rock Cycle:

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Title: Rocks and the Rock Cycle:


1
Rocks and the Rock Cycle
2
Rocks and the Rock Cycle
  • Can rocks change from one type to another?

3
What is a rock?
4
What is a rock?
  • A rock is a solid, naturally occurring chunk in
    the lithosphere that was melted, cemented, or
    pressed together.

5
What is a rock?
  • A rock is a solid, naturally occurring chunk in
    the lithosphere that was melted, cemented, or
    pressed together.
  • May or may not contain minerals.

6
Classifying rocks
7
Classifying rocks
  • Texture Texture is a rocks grain structure.

8
Classifying rocks
  • Texture Texture is a rocks grain structure.
  • Geologists break up a rocks grain structure
    into three categories.

9
Classifying rocks
  • Texture Texture is a rocks grain structure.
  • Geologists break up a rocks grain structure
    into three categories.
  • Grain size

10
Fine grain Slate
11
Coarse grain Diorite
12
No visible grain Flint
13
Classifying rocks
  • Texture Texture is a rocks grain structure.
  • Geologists break up a rocks grain structure
    into three categories.
  • Grain size
  • Grain shape

14
Rounded grain Conglomerate
15
Jagged grain Breccia
16
Classifying rocks
  • Texture Texture is a rocks grain structure.
  • Geologists break up a rocks grain structure
    into three categories.
  • Grain size
  • Grain shape
  • Grain pattern

17
Non-banded grain Quartzite
18
Banded grain Gneiss
19
Types of Rocks
  • Igneous rocks

20
Types of igneous rocks Basalt
21
Types of igneous rocks Obsidian
22
Types of Rocks
  • Igneous rocks This type forms from the cooling
    of magma or lava.

23
Types of Rocks
  • Igneous rocks This type forms from the cooling
    of magma or lava.
  • Extrusive igneous rocks Formed from lava that
    hardened on the surface of the Earth.

24
Extrusive igneous Rhyolite
25
Types of Rocks
  • Igneous rocks This type forms from the cooling
    of magma or lava.
  • Extrusive igneous rocks Formed from lava that
    hardened on the surface of the Earth.
  • Intrusive igneous rocks Formed from magma that
    hardened beneath the surface of the Earth.

26
Intrusive igneous Porphyry
27
Igneous rocks Pumice
28
Types of Rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks

29
Types of Rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks This type forms when particles
    of other rocks or the remains of plants and
    animals are pressed and cemented together.

30
Types of Rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks This type forms when particles
    of other rocks or the remains of plants and
    animals are pressed and cemented together.
  • Clastic Made of small rocks squeezed together.

31
Clastic Sedimentary rocks Shale
32
Types of Rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks This type forms when particles
    of other rocks or the remains of plants and
    animals are pressed and cemented together.
  • Clastic Made of small rocks squeezed together.
  • Organic Made of the remains of plants or animals.

33
Organic sedimentary rocks Coquina
34
Types of Rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks This type forms when particles
    of other rocks or the remains of plants and
    animals are pressed and cemented together.
  • Clastic Made of small rocks squeezed together.
  • Organic Made of the remains of plants or
    animals.
  • Chemical Made of minerals that are dissolved in
    a solution and crystallize.

35
Chemical sedimentary rocks Tufa
36
Types of Rocks
  • Metamorphic rocks Formed from any rock by heat
    and pressure deep beneath the Earths surface.

37
Types of Rocks
  • Metamorphic rocks Formed from any rock by heat
    and pressure deep beneath the Earths surface.
  • Foliated rocks Grains arranged in parallel
    layers or bands.

38
Foliated rocks Phyllite
39
Types of Rocks
  • Metamorphic rocks Formed from any rock by heat
    and pressure deep beneath the Earths surface.
  • Foliated rocks Grains arranged in parallel
    layers or bands.
  • Non-foliated rocks Grains are arranged randomly.

40
Non-foliated rocks Hornfels
41
Volcanic activity       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Melting       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Erosion       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Deposition                    
  Heat and Pressure                    
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
                       
                       
                       
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
                       
                       
                       
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
 
42
Volcanic activity       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Melting       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Erosion       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Deposition                    
  Heat and Pressure                    
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
                       
                       
                       
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
                       
                       
                       
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
 
43
Volcanic activity       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Melting       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Erosion       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Deposition                    
  Heat and Pressure                    
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
                       
                       
                       
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
                       
                       
                       
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
 
44
Volcanic activity       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Melting       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Erosion       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Deposition                    
  Heat and Pressure                    
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
                       
                       
                       
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
                       
                       
                       
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
 
45
Volcanic activity       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Melting       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Erosion       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Deposition                    
  Heat and Pressure                    
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
                       
                       
                       
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
                       
                       
                       
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
 
46
Volcanic activity       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Melting       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Erosion       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Deposition                    
  Heat and Pressure                    
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
                       
                       
                       
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
                       
                       
                       
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
 
47
Volcanic activity       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Melting       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Erosion       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Deposition                    
  Heat and Pressure                    
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
                       
                       
                       
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
                       
                       
                       
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
 
48
Volcanic activity       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Melting       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Erosion       The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle  
  Deposition                    
  Heat and Pressure                    
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
            Sediment Sediment Sediment      
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
    Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Igneous Rock              
                       
                       
                       
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
                  Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
  Magma and Lava Magma and Lava Magma and Lava                
                       
                       
                       
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
          Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock        
 
49
Minerals
50
Minerals
  • What are minerals and what do they look like?

51
Rocks vs. Minerals
  • May contain minerals.
  • May contain organic substances.
  • Are classified by the way they were formed.
  • Occur naturally in the lithosphere as a chunk.
  • Contain elements or combinations of elements in a
    specific ratio.
  • Ex. Emerald is
  • Be Al Si O
  • May form crystals.
  • Occurs naturally in the lithosphere as a chunk.
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